What is Dayson`s sphere?
As were told by M. A. Bulgakov, the housing problem spoiled Muscovites. Already now the problem of an overpopulation is particularly acute very not only in scales of the certain cities, but also on the scale of the planet Earth in general. And present what will happen in the future, in very far future if the number of mankind continues to increase in the same vein, as earlier.
Many scientists offered space expansion as an exit from this problem, about it the huge number scientifically - fantastic works is written, a number of movies is shot.
But, besides “living space“, the developing civilization needs energy, it is a lot of energy! The safest and in some way its most obvious source is the Sun - why to burn organic substances or to carry out dangerous nuclear reactions if all necessary, as they say, is on a silver platter. A question only in catching enough this energy.
Approximately in this way the English physicist Freeman John Dayson argued. In 1960 he offered extremely interesting astroengineering project capable to resolve at the same time a problem of shortage of a habitat and deficiency of energy.
Decision F. DaysonAstroengineering can call
such projects which scale is comparable to planets, stars and planetary systems. Certainly, it is the ideas intended for the far future, but, unlike simple imaginations, they are evidence-based. To submit such projects, the good imagination and ability to reject stereotypes will be required. Dayson`s sphere in some way a pearl of astroengineering ideas in literal and figurative sense. So it it?
Present the huge sphere, radius equal to distance from Earth to the Sun (1 astronomical unit) in which there is the central star of planetary system. Better to understand idea, look at the scheme and give vent to imagination. Construction of such cyclopean construction will require the mass of substance at least equal to the mass of Jupiter. On an internal surface of the sphere inhabitants who will be able to catch practically all radiation of the star will settle down.
The civilization of the sphere does not depend on any fuel while its star shines, and for stars like the Sun this term makes billions of years. Energy consumption of such civilization can reach value about 4õ10 26 W. To present scale, remember how many kilowatts you consume in a month.
And how many there will be places: the area of an internal surface of a similar design makes about 600 million terrestrial surfaces. If to place all modern mankind on such number of planets, similar to ours, then on each of them only 10 people, and here all within one planetary system would live. What here a housing problem when the place is enough for all for thousands of generations forward. Sounds extremely …
By the way, Dayson admits that he borrowed idea of the sphere the fantast Olaf Stepldon, the author of the novel “Creator of Stars“ where such design is described. And our compatriot K. E. Tsiolkovsky was very close to idea of the sphere, suggesting to build a set of space settlements which as a result will be able to catch all solar energy around the Sun. But F. Dayson proved idea of the Sphere, calculated design parameters, created models so the name in honor of it is quite fair.
Or perhaps someone already constructed?
It is natural that Dayson`s Sphere will be built not in the next decade and even not in the next century, and for People of Earth this project - far dream. But Earth not the only planet in space, and it is possible, our brothers on reason, remote from us on light years on distance and overtaking us on millions of years of development, already built similar spheres.
Again fantasy? However researchers of the project of search of extraterrestrial reason of SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) treated idea of search of “others“ spheres quite seriously. It is supposed that the design of an advanced civilization will radiate in the infrared range, surplus of heat is necessary to nobody. Parameters of radiation of a solid body of such size will differ from the radiation of fogs that will theoretically allow to find similar artifacts among natural objects.
For search of Spheres of other civilizations it is planned to use the space NASA SIRTF infrared telescope (Space Infrared Telescope Facility). So, maybe, we will find Dayson`s project already realized by our space neighbors. whether
the Spoon of tar and a way of its overcoming
will be able to carry out mankind such ambitious project whether will be able to carry out it who other in the Universe? According to opinion of critics, Dayson`s Sphere in initial modification would be unstable and collapsed.
The matter is that for overcoming of force of an attraction of the Sun or other star the design has to rotate around an axis. Then centrifugal force will compensate gravitation. In some way the effect reminding a spinning top. However complexity is that centrifugal force is maximum on the equator, and on poles equals to zero. That is on poles will counterbalance nothing the Sphere. It would lead to death of all astroengineering construction. For the solution of this contradiction the set of modifications of the initial project was offered: it both Niven`s ring, and less ambitious stations of O`Neil, and some more courageous and grandiose concepts, which consideration of adequately separate article.
It will be extremely difficult to extract so much substance, build a design, to protect it from external influences - all this in our eyes does the project almost impossible. But whether ancient people could, sitting on a tree, to present the same Ostankino Television Tower?
This project is feasible or not, all the same the idea deserves attention, at least from science fiction writers, at most from engineers, astronomers and other scientists. Perhaps, Dayson`s Sphere is a fairy tale, the myth of the present, but remember - Dedal and Icarus`s history was written several millennia ago. And the millennia in Universe scales - it is insignificant a little.