power of thought of
Mental phenomena EYES of SCIENTISTS Most of people trust
in the paranormal phenomena and quite often face them. Someone dreams “prophetic“ dreams, someone was convinced of correctness of the intuition more than once, heard stories of the eyewitnesses who endured clinical death or observed the telekinesis phenomenon. But if to approach impartially and to ask such person what scientific proofs of existence of the paranormal phenomena he can provide, the absolute majority will appear in confusion. It is more than that, this subject became already traditional in boulevard editions and the seeming abundance of information in practice turns in just cheap pursuit of sensation. As a result, the majority practically knows nothing about an essence of such phenomena and scientific experiments in this area. Profanation of miracles and extraordinary events leaves feeling of deep dissatisfaction. People want explanations, but not the list inexplicable. “Why it occurs? How it occurs?“ - they ask. These are purely scientific questions, questions of search of profound and exact knowledge. Polls of scientists, show that the very few recognize existence of the paranormal phenomena though that encourages, less those who from a threshold reject paranormal as absolutely impossible. Whether in that the reason that experiment which would dispel their disbelief or, at least, allowed to allow probability paranormal, still it is not put? Or they persisting in own prejudices refuse to see obvious?
the Reason probably that today paranormal more than it is enough proofs of existence, but insufficiently honest and detailed information allowing to draw own independent conclusions about a subject.
Is continued to acquaint popularly the reader with information of scientific character on experiments in the field of the paranormal phenomena and their results. I offer excerpts from the remarkable monograph of scientific psychologists, Hans Eisenk and Karl Sardzhent. (© Hans J. Eysenck and Carl Sargent, EXPLAINING THE UNEXPLAINED, 1982, 1993 & 1997)
the POWER of REASON OVER CAR
Many experimenters looked for objective methods of registration over perception (SV) and abnormal abilities of the person. Use of the computer equipment, allowed to make such experiments on the present answering to the principles of scientific research.
the physicist who was Born in Germany worked 20 years in research laboratories of the Boeing was the first scientist who applied this equipment for careful and systematic test of a psa. This person, doctor Helmut Schmidt, developed the automatic car for a psa - tests which generates casual events, registers guesses of the examinee and writes down all data in shape which is easy for reading and processing. By means of the car Schmidt hoped to make experiments in which write errors, methodical miscalculations and other reefs would be excluded.
of Work of Schmidt gave one of the best of the written-down certificates in favor of a psa hitherto and they pushed others to repeat its efforts. We will address works of his followers later; at first it is necessary to understand the basic principles of the car of Schmidt and procedure of experiences. Obviously, in more than twenty years since the first experiences of Schmidt of the technician developed and changed, but the basic principles remained invariable. In car heart for a psa - tests there is a natural stochastic process - radioactive decay of isotope of strontium - 90. At disintegration of atoms of Sr - 90 fast electrons through casual, absolutely unpredictable intervals of time are radiated. Radioactive decay is detected and registered the Geiger counter. This Geiger counter, in turn, is connected to the high-frequency electronic oscillator. The oscillator constantly passes, on a cycle, into one of several (usually four) various electronic states. When the Geiger counter detects issue of an electron, the counter operated by the oscillator stops, registering a state - 1, 2, 3 or 4 - the oscillator in issue microsecond. The simple display with the numbered bulbs allows to see what of states is registered.
This device was used in the majority of works of Schmidt for studying of prebroadcasting and a psychokinesis.
of the Examinee asked to guess what of the numbered bulbs will light up following - the test of prebroadcasting or clairvoyance (SV). Or to force effort of thought one of bulbs to light up more often than in 25% of cases - the test of a psychokinesis (personal computer). Advantages of such machine testing are obvious. Experience is simple and clear; events which should be predicted or which should be operated are absolutely casual and allow to measure precisely number of progress of the examinee in ps - the test in comparison with stochastic level; besides, the car automatically writes down results, excepting human mistakes (that is especially important in tests of prebroadcasting).
SV and Schmidt`s
car Schmidt published results of the first SV - experiments in 1969. In these experiences examinees registered the guesses, pressing one of four numbered buttons. Pressing the button forced the car to make a target and to light the lamp corresponding (target). The guess (the pressed button) and a target (the lit lamp) registered in a paper punched tape. All process, single attempt, came to the end for a half of second. To be protected from fraud (or an inadvertent mistake), the car is designed so that ignores attempts to press two or more buttons though if one button is pressed on a million fraction of a second earlier, than the others, the car registers the first signal (the pressed button) as the choice of the examinee.
Originally Schmidt tested about 100 people invited from Methodist churches and church parishes. Making such choice, he believed that among similar people there are more chances to find the personality with high ps - abilities. In this group really there was one, apparently, gifted person, the doctor of physics who could foretell behavior of the car to such an extent that the probability of casual receiving this result is less than 1 chance on 100 000. Unfortunately, this person had to move to the new place of work so Schmidt could not continue experiences with it. However results convinced Schmidt that it is necessary to concentrate on the few gifted persons.
At further selection of the people possessing some abilities, Schmidt found three people for large-scale experiment. All three showed keen interest in the paranormal phenomena. One of them was a medium, another the teacher of “mental development“, the third, the truck driver, was presented as “the psychic - the fan“. Everything, together they executed 63 066 single experiences (guesses). The probabilistic average, of course, of 25% or 15 766 hits (the correct guesses), but actually made number of hits 16 458, honor 700 more, than the probability theory foretells. Though the similar result is not too high (less than 27%), but as it is supported by more than one thousand attempts, the probability of its casual achievement is less than 1 chance of 100 million.
Schmidt began to vary the simple experiment, asking people to gather much and a little - to try to use C B to guess correctly, and also to gather less probabilistic average. Further we still will consider often described phenomenon of “negative SV“ or ps - a miss.
Schmidt also made experiments with clairvoyance. In this case targets were generated by car and remained on a punched tape. The tape then was inserted into the car which was programmed to read out data and to light bulbs in the predetermined order. Instead of guessing of future targets his examinees had to guess the targets which are already generated and kept - clairvoyance instead of prebroadcasting. Using the equipment “gather much, gather a little“, Schmidt received again result which probability is less than 1 chance on 250 000; its group consisted of six people this time.
of Check and self-examination
Before considering other experiments of Schmidt, is useful to make a pause and to address reliability questions. Obviously, results of early experiments of Schmidt - not accident. Whether it is possible to connect them with a certain shift in the equipment? Perfectly realizing such opportunity, Schmidt executed a set of checks. As all basic experimental data were stored at it on a punched tape, it could check whether there is any feature in this or that sequence which could lead to the displaced result. It inserted sequence of guesses into the car and compared it with again generated sequence of targets. Comparison showed number of hits, within a statistical error very close to 25%, as well as the probability theory foretells. Besides, Schmidt regularly programmed the car on generation of long sequences of targets which he analyzed regarding shift. Schmidt did to
also other checks. In one research of prebroadcasting its car worked as the writing-down device, but instead of a source of casual events from Sr - 90 it used the standard table of random numbers published by RAND corporation. In experiment from 15 000 attempts it received the result which is significantly exceeding stochastic (1 chance of one million). Schmidt used the cars of own design and also created by other employees of research laboratories of the Boeing also found out that he receives successful results irrespective of car type. Its documentation contains details of these and many other checks.
In the first experiment Schmidt found out that it is possible to call ps - a miss. His examinees showed result below stochastic. Schmidt selected the steadiest “ps - fumblers“ and executed with them 32 768 attempts (one attempt - single switching of a bulb). Under laws of a case of 50% of switchings has to be clockwise, but in Schmidt`s experiment of these switchings there were only slightly more than 49%. The effect is also small, but the probability of casual receiving such result is less than 1 chance for 1000.
Though Schmidt continued to publish the successful researches year after year, we cannot list everything from them. But four works (one is executed by Schmidt and three - the groups including Schmidt) deserve special attention. In the first of them Schmidt used “simple“ GSS (binary system, as in experiment with the dial) and much more difficult. The last generated a large number of separate casual events, counted number of events of each type and then presented to the examinee the most often generated target (the principle of majority vote). Results of these experiments exceeded stochastic (probability of casual achievement less than 1 chance on 100 000), and examinees gained equal percent of points by cars of both types. This opening is important for understanding of the nature of a psa.
Critics are disarmed by
By our calculations, the probability of casual obtaining all set of results of Schmidt is so microscopic that only record of zero after a comma would take several places. Nobody suggested to consider such result casual.
Critics quickly realized that Schmidt`s work is performed on the highest standards. Not we one consider that experiments are executed reliably, written down carefully and are scrupulously checked by statistics. Technically conceiving readers at desire will find many details from widely known scientific works of Schmidt.
To be continued ….