scientific proofs of existence of paranormal
SUPERNATURAL and PARANORMAL
the BELIEF SUBJECT EYES of SCIENTISTS
the Subject of serious scientific researches paranormal practically does not meet on pages of popular editions, in too time of the newspaper and magazines dazzle with “sensations“ about UFO, unusual abilities and puzzles. If to try from such articles, to obtain any information which is really credible, then, most likely all “researches“ will be reduced to the narration of the journalist “doing“ this sensation. And proofs, to arguments like “someone, saw something, or certain claims X that …“. For soberly conceiving reader of the person interested to make own idea of a subject, such “facts“ nothing is cleared up and arouse only mistrust. As a result, on a question, what really scientific proofs of existence of afterlife, supersensory perception (SP), or impact on matter thought - a psychokinesis (personal computer) you can bring, the majority will answer nothing intelligible. To give the chance to the reader to make own idea of a subject, we offer the publication on materials of the remarkable monograph of scientific psychologists, world renowned, of Hans Eisenk and Karl Sardzhent. (© Hans J. Eysenck and Carl Sargent, EXPLAINING THE UNEXPLAINED, 1982, 1993 & 1997) you learn
In this fragment about the scientific experiments put with the purpose to investigate possibilities of the person to influence the will live systems and chemical reactions.
Reason - the healer the Tradition of healing by belief is old
as the world and remains effective. Statements for “wonderful healings“ are often extravagant, and it is difficult to receive nadezhkny data. In fact, it zayavklyatsya that, at least, individuals have force to cure an illness or to expel boklezn by pure effort of will, without any medicines and even medical knowledge. From the point of view of the researcher any predpoklagayemy power of reason to change the physical world, a way even the body of other person will be this part of the physical world, there is a possible example of the personal computer - effect. But whether it is possible to study scientific means the estimated strength of healers? May we learn whether influence of thought (personal computer) participates in the treatment declared by the healer?
For a start we need to be convinced of a primacy of mood, a spirit and belief, or, in general govokrya, psychological factors, of an illness etiology. A number of tremendous medical data demonstrates that statements for healing by belief are quite in the course of what we call “usual“ psychological effects.
In “The British medical magazine“ the doctor A. A. Mason reported about successful treatment by hypnosis of a genetic disease hard to cure. The boy having the awful skin disease known under the name an ichthyosis (“fish skin“), Skin at this disease rigid was his patient, fragile and easily bursts, giving rise to the suppurating wounds to which the inkfektion easily gets. Effective methods of treatment are unknown now, and the children having this disease die at early age as a result of constant infections. The numerous attempts of treatment which appeared unsuccessful became. Mason`s patient did not react to one of them.
Prior to hypnotic treatment Mason perfectly understood that in case of success sceptics will snatch on it, trying to attribute healing of the boy to anything, only not to hypnosis. They will challenge the diagnosis and will try to declare that healing became the remote result of former treatment. Charges of the wrong diagnosis became a stumbling block for many statements for wonderful healing, but in this case the diagnosis did not raise questions. The people addressing heterodox therapy usually at first try everything that the orthodox medicine can offer, however sceptics can always declare the remote effect of the previous treatment. Mason found the brilliant solution of this dilemma.
It hypnotized the boy, then gave the specific instruction that rigid skin was gone only on one hand. Quite so also it happened. After that it was simple to declare ridiculously that former treatment worked only on a certain part of a body of the boy, on that which the hypnotist decided to cure! It is clear, that a healthy hand - a consequence of impact of hypnosis. Mason continued and cleared in such a way over 90% of the affected child`s skin; there were only small spots on a back. The Neizkbezhny conclusion - hypnosis effectively treats “incurable“ diseases.
It is also necessary to mention Stephen Griyer and his remarkable research of communication of lichknostny characteristics and breast cancer which is carried out in hospital of King`s College London. Griyer and his colleagues established that certain personal characteristics promote transformation and fast death of malignant cages. Such factor as desire to overcome an illness, seemingly, much more increases survival and the subsequent time of life whereas the persons hiding in themselves the suppressed irritation are predisposed to fast death that is probably connected with functioning and production to an imm - a noglobulin (IgA).
We will give one more example. Bereavements have the huge, proceeding several months overwhelming effect on growth of cells of white blood; as a result the person suppressed by a grief is subject to infections and diseases (thus, there is a truth in the popular wisdom saying that some people literally go to a grave after loss close and hotly darling). The reason possesses powerful action on a body. Eventually, from - for it clinical tests of drugs surely include tests with placebo as doctors too well know that placebo (“blende“, inactive harmless substance) can okakzat salutary effect in itself. Such is power of belief and trust. But the same phenomenon becomes a problem in case it is necessary to separate effects of auto-suggestion of objective influences of the personal computer.
About mice, plants and enzymes belief, whether it be in the monastery in Lurdes or efforts of very unpleasant American healers - preachers, are too considerable
of Difficulty of studying of cases of alleged healing. Problems of wrong diagnoses, the possible remote effects of the previous treatment, the temporary nature of healing etc. bring extreme uncertainty. However there are easier ways of carrying out similar researches. Bernard Gred, professor of psychiatry of University of McGill in Canada, deserves special respect for development of basic procedure which developed in one of the brightest directions of researches in parapsychology.
Gred under anesthesia did small cuts on leather of mice who then were treated by the healer Oscar Estebani. Mice were divided into two groups: control (not receiving treatment) and experimental which was treated by Estebani. During Estebani`s treatment it was allowed to take cages in which there lived mice, but not mice in hand. It is important as it is known that the touch and a pokglazhivaniye can influence physical process of healing. Wounds at both groups then were measured by the laboratory assistants who were not knowing, the mouse treats control or experimental group. Thus, write errors which could affect the found distinctions between groups were excluded. At last, as mice, as we know, are a little subject to effects of belief, no observed distinction could be referred to effects of placebo!
In this experiment of a wound of the mice receiving treatment wounds of mice of control group dragged on much quicker, than. However in other series of researches Gred Estebani showed the effect even more independent of physical contact. Gred podgotokvit two groups of the plants which are grown up in chemical solutions normal or salt (which suppress growth), Estebani was allowed to touch only the glass vessels containing salt solutions, but solutions were protected from direct physical contact. Gred found out that the salt solutions “processed“ by the healer suppress growth of plants much less, than raw solutions though the chemical analysis of solutions did not show any distinctions between them.
Though these experiments allow to draw certain conclusions, Gred continued to develop the methods allowing to exclude many problems of work with organic systems.
Estebani participated in one remarkable series of the experiments made by Justina Smith, the head of the physicist - chemical office of college Rozari Hill to Buffalo, state New - York. In these experiments it was supposed to check whether Estebani by means of the personal computer can influence very simple organic systems, activity of enzymes of the person. Enzymes (enzymes) - the extensive category of human proteins which is carrying out the vital functions. In fact, enzymes influence the speed of chemical reactions. Some accelerate reactions, some slow down; in everything “the system of controls and counterbalances“ works. A simple illustration of importance of functions of enzymes in an organism: if only ten of key enzymes in your organism stop the action NOW, then you will probably die, without having read up until the end of the page. Smith tested Estebani`s ability to influence activity of only one enzyme participating in trypsin digestion. The choice was stopped on trypsin as it is easy to receive this enzyme in chemically pure look, and the biochemical analysis of its activity is rather simple. Smith found out that Estebani is capable to influence trypsin solution, increasing activity of enzyme, without pryakmy contact with it. Such factors as temkperatura and intensity of a magnetic field around the equipment in which there was an enzyme (both factors influence activity of trypsin so it was important to exclude them as possible mechanisms of influence of Estebani), were carefully measured. Any changes it was revealed not though Smith counted that alleged impact on trypsin was equivalent to imposing of a magnetic field in 13 000 Gauss.
These works gave rise to several nakpravleniye of researches in “bio - the personal computer“. We can divide them into three big groups: studying of influence of the personal computer on blood cells and chemical systems, influences of the personal computer on functions of a human body and influence of the personal computer on other live organisms. All these directions led to the intriguing results.
The personal computer against bacteria? Many dangers are concealed by
in modern food. Salmonella in chicken meat, a listeriya in cheese, botulism in pork canned food (remember panic of 1992) force us to treat what we eat cautiously. It is definitely not too easy to forget botulism. Thus, half-dozens of experiments studying possible operation of the personal computer on microorganisms (barmy cages, the salmonella lodging in intestines E. coli), certainly, are rather interesting. In the recent review of Gertrude Shmaydler six similar works which are carried out by various researchers are considered; in all works significant impact on cultures monocelled, exerted by attempts to use the personal computer for change of their activity is shown. Similar works with tremendous stability show that the human will is capable to suppress or accelerate growth of microorganisms. After addition of the latest researches the level of success remains very high, and the accepted precautions (measurements were carried out by people who were not informed whether it was supposed to accelerate or slow down growth of this group of organisms, physical contact between the person and an organism etc. was excluded) constantly were at the high level. These researches allow to assume surely that the personal computer is capable to influence the elementary biological organizkma. From this there is an important consequence as under certain conditions unicells are an etiology.
Influence on blood cells was studied by
In works with other cellular systems how the personal computer can influence blood. In three experiments William Braud studied destruction of the red blood cages placed in solution of different salinity (concentration of salt) in comparison with normal plasma of blood. When red blood cages get to similar solutions, they begin to collapse; this process carries the name gemoliz. As solution of red blood cages in process of their destruction becomes more and more transparent for light, it is easy to measure the speed of destruction by amount of light from the constant source passing through solution;
this method of measurements is called a spektrofotometriya. In these experiments of the indication of the spectrophotometer registered the laboratory assistant who is not knowing whether the person in the place, remote from laboratory, by means of the protect personal computer blood cages from destruction (it similarly to “remote healing“ Tries, and here, obviously, the known physical mechanisms of influence are excluded). In two of three experiments gemoliz it was significantly slowed down; the total result of all three experiments is statistically significant.
Impact on blood was measured also in remarkable research Snelya and Wang - der - Sidye in Bilkhovena, Holland. Experiences staviklis on the rats infected with Babesia, parazitikruyushchy on red blood cages. Protective forces of the infected rats asked to strengthen the healer, without having provided for work anything, except photos of these rats - again a hint on physical contact. The healer lived in 20 miles from rats and did not receive any written materials concerning experiment, only photos of animals which need to be helped. Medical measurements of these rats and the control group which was not using the benefits of “remote treatment“ were carried out by the laboratory assistants who do not have information what group this or that rat treats. Izkmereniya was shown that on 14 - y and 28 - y doklya the infected cages at the rats receiving treatment is significant day below, than at a control grupkpa. What intrigues, researchers also soobkshchit that all rats felt better, than it was possible to expect: “Usually the rats infected with Babesia rodhani do not live as long as animals in our experiment“. Business looked so as if the healer, protecting experimental group of rats, helped all rats occupied in this work. Eventually, only one photos for work - it is not enough, and all rats (at least, in our opinion) look equally (if they one pure line as was in this experiment). Possibly, the kind healer wished to help all of them! At everything thus distinction between experimental and control groups statistically significantly.
Similar results shake. They nakmekat on direct impact of human will on basic processes in blood and function of immune system and, therefore, on resistance to a disease. If the personal computer is capable to influence the cellular structures making blood, then is capable to influence also any fabric, body or system of an organism. This obvious consequence for arguments in favor of healing.
Impact on functions of a human body
the Main massif of researches with human beings as objects of the personal computer was carried out more than ten years ago by William Braud and his employees in Fund of sciences about reason in San - Antonio, the State of Texas. In this long series of grandiose researches various target systems for the personal computer - effects were used, but certain characteristics were the general. Examinees (from so-so statistical selection) tried by means of the personal computer at distance to influence some aspects of human behavior or activity. In various series of experiments Braud and his colleagues wanted to establish whether people by means of will beskontaktno can influence the following: elektrodermaljny activity of skin (the indicator of activity of autonomous nervous system connected with uneasiness and other emotional states; Braud`s team made 323 experiments in 15 series, taking only this measurement), ideomotorny reactions (the weak involuntary changes in the movements of muscles of a hand, palm and fingers connected with thought process), a muscular tremor (a little pthe measure of physical activity of muscles which is given to conscious management), arterial pressure.
Braud and his group conducted also other researches (for example, experiments on a blood gemoliza), but is already told about them enough.
It is necessary to emphasize some general characteristics of all these experiments. In - the first, laboratory procedure in details was developed by Braud and completely meets our expectations of how scientific experiment has to be made. The physical razdekleniye of the people exerting impact and “human targets“ was absolute. Measurements became the technicians which do not have information when and what pokpytka became to influence “human targets“. - Comparisons became between the periods with influence and without influence which alternated stochastic, were balanced and otlichaklis only by existence or lack of influence. Physiological target systems were tshchatelkno selected as these systems very much of a labilna and are inclined to fluctuations during very kokrotky periods of time. And so on.
Importance of all set of these researches is immense. Summarizing 655 experiences from an obikliya of experiments, we see that 1 chance from 30 trillion falls to the share of accident. Remote influence of will of the person on behavior and subconscious activity of other people is obvious here, and results are steady in all long series of researches.
There are no questions as if one of effects by means of statistics is taken from air in one experiment, and another in the following experiment. Only one 15 series of elektrodermalny researches more than show stability of effect clearly.
In general all these researches show that the person is capable to influence functions of an organism of other people only one action of thought. Also the calming, and stimulating effects were observed. Impact on such factors as arterial pressure in combination with data on impact of the personal computer on blood and enzymes, allows to assume surely that personal computers - effects in healing are quite plausible.
We consider the research program of Braud as the remarkable, complete massif of excellent works. It is also important to notice that though any other researcher could not give such versatile and so evidences in favor of bio - the personal computer, the reason here that nobody else had so much time, means and determination that so diligent and laboriously to conduct the huge mass of researches. Of course, it does not mean that outstanding work of Braud has no support and confirmation; experiments on bio - the personal computer with unicells and in other areas support and confirm its conclusions. It simply means that outstanding work of Braud, has not equal.
Confirmed in the key provisions with other experimenters, it is a tough nut for orthodox sceptics.
Personal computer: summing up the result
Results of these works surprise, set thinking and possess the potential practical importance. It is obvious in researches bio - the personal computer, but it is right also in machine personal computers - experiments how the observed effects were small. Robert Morris, Dean Redin and others made a hypothesis that the personal computer can bear responsibility for some computer failures which are especially connected with a human stress (time pressure, hard, nervous work); only the insignificant effect that the computer system “hung“ can be required. If to look how there are a lot of systems which we use, even without noticing whether they rely on microprocessor technologies or something else, can depend on our mental states, this possibility should be considered seriously.
In the final chapters we will concern fundamenktalny questions of a psa. How it works? Whether the life hypothesis after corporal death can scientifically be studied? However at first one more interesting question.
Still we almost only zanikmatsya by experiments in which the certain person consciously tried to use ps or, at least, knew that its effects are present in ps - experiment. From results of polls we know that nothing similar almost never happens behind walls of laboratory. It seems that “prophetic dreams“ or manifestations of telepathy do not happen thanks to desire of people; probably, they just happen irrespective of conscious efforts. Thus, the gap between laboratory researches and real life is visible.
In some works of the last 20 years attempts to throw the bridge over the abyss dividing two of these areas became; researchers studied ability of people to use ps without special efforts - actually in most cases they participated in ps - the test, without knowing it. These experiments gave a number of the surprising finds very similar to manifestations of a psa in real life as we will see from the following chapter.
To be continued …