Plan “Barbarossa“: how it arose and why failed?
Forty with superfluous years the Soviet government hid from the people the truth about the so-called pact of Ribbentrop - Molotova (August, 1939 - go), about events of that time.
Signing this contract, Stalin as if invited Hitler to attack the USSR. In - the first, created for Germany territorially - strategic prerequisites to it (the general border of the Soviet Union and the Reich after division of the Polish earth between them), in - the second, provided the nazi state voyenno in advance - strategic raw materials from our stocks, in - the third, the USSR quarreled with the democratic countries which wished the world.
The pact gave a free hand to Hitler for warfare against the West. The national commissioner of foreign affairs of the USSR Molotov had to support under the guise of “neutrality“ Germany politically, and the people`s commissar Mikoyan economically - under the guise of “trade“. Prior to war our border railway stations sent to the Reich echelons with wheat, flour, sugar, meat, oil, ore, metal rolling, an electricity cable and a cable, rubber, oil and other goods.
At dawn on June 22, 1941 the German planes filled with the Soviet gasoline began to bomb the Soviet cities. Behind them Hitlerite tanks with full tanks of our fuel moved. Under cover of these cars the enemy infantry provided with our bread advanced to the attack...
In trade with Germans V. M. Molotov and A. I. Mikoyan were full bankrupts. Of course, it was Stalin`s bankruptcy. But “the leader of all people“, as a rule, punished its performers for crash of own policy. And if after declaration of war of the head of Molotov and Mikoyan escaped, then only because Stalin lost the in big panic from the first military losses.
At the XX congress of N. S. Khrushchev on behalf of the Central Committee and all generals demonstrated what was in heavy military hour I. V. Stalin: “It would be wrong to forget that after the first serious failures and defeats at the front Stalin thought that there came the end. In one of the speeches delivered those days he told: “Everything that was created by Lenin, we lost forever“. Joseph Stalin did not direct military operations for a long time, having ceased to do something in general.
In the memoirs the former Soviet ambassador in Great Britain I. M. Maysky wrote: “There came the second day of war - from Moscow was not a sound, there came the third, fourth day - Moscow continued to be silent. I looked forward to any instructions... But neither Molotov, nor Stalin gave any signs of life. Then I did not know that Stalin was locked, saw nobody and did not take part in the solution of public affairs“. That is why instead of Stalin Molotov broadcast on June 22, and the Soviet ambassadors long did not receive directives from the center.
Stalin returned to affairs after he was visited by some members of the Politburo and noted that it is necessary to take immediately certain steps to improve situation. Our commanders of military districts and fronts in Leningrad, Baltic, Belarus, in Ukraine were skilled and responsible military leaders. All of them and their staffs long before attack of Germans raised a question for General headquarters of reduction of troops in combat readiness. But, accused of a provokatorstvo, alarmism and an indiscipline, received categorical commands not to hold any preparatory activities.
The commander of the Kiev special military district who became Hugo later - the Western front the general - the colonel Kirponos addressed Stalin with the letter, reporting that Hitlerites concentrate on the Bug River and will begin approach soon. He asked for permission to evacuate 300 thousand people of the population from dangerous areas and to equip there the base for defense. But forbade to do it it. And when on June 10 our troops began to take positions on unfinished boundary strengthenings, from a staff the terrible hail was heard: “Immediately cancel the order and report who specifically issued the unauthorized order“.
Kirponos worried further: “The protected border is broken daily. Over our territory the German planes appear. In many ukreprayona the arms are removed as outdated, new are not replaced. Heads of the district are concerned, they have practically no real opportunities to give accurate orders to a komsostav of parts and connections“.
However the Soviet tanks and planes remained to stand on a runway and hangars not filled, without ammunition which continued to lie on bases and was not delivered to crews. Many commanders were on long holidays, and pilots, tankmen and infantrymen, on Sunday June 22 were in dismissal.
In it there was the main reason of the first progress of Hitlerite troops. Their tanks, cars and planes, again - as well as prior to war, fuelled Soviet which invaders received after capture of our bases of supply. The German general Halder in the diary noted that thirty percent of need for fuel of army of the Reich had at the expense of trophy, taken in borders of Baltic and Belarus. The Air Force commander of the Belarusian front, having convinced that its fighting vehicles did not rise in air, and were almost destroyed in airfields, it was shot. It is a lot of commanders and soldiers, witnesses of the tragedy of our troops in the first days of war, told that the Soviet front airfields were literally filled with bombers and fighters. Germans not only destroyed them by the planes, but also, shooting at point blank range, pressed tanks.
Absolutely not so military operations on Hugo - the Western front developed. The general is the colonel M. P. Kirponos holding the order forbidding to alert troops on the eve of enemy invasion at own risk gave command to prepare urgently for reflection of attack of the opponent. As a result from the first hour of attack Hitlerites received repulse on many sectors of the front. Mikhail Kirponos and his staff completely owned a situation and constrained an impact of the German hordes.
Nazis, testing severe losses, threw into fight all new and new cases and divisions with assistance of numerous aircraft. And, though all of them - moved ahead, rates were significantly lower than planned. Near Lutsk and Dubno, under Fords long and bloody artillery duels and tank battles were started. Skilled fascist fighters of similar knew nothing neither in Poland, nor in fights in France.
In reports of Hitlerite generals serious concern in connection with losses of equipment, unprecedented for them, and people was felt. A bigger resistance was shown by the Soviet troops, defending Vinnytsia, Bila Tserkva, Uman, Berdichev and Zhytomyr. Here too there were heavy fights. July during which invaders planned to take Kiev came to an end, but their plans did not come true. Enemy forces were stopped for many tens of kilometers to the west of Kiev.
Fortunately, the Hitlerite plan “Barbarossa“ failed, more precisely, it was broken by fighters and commanders of Red army on all fronts. Having made inhuman efforts, they dispelled plans of blitzkrieg of Hitler at the very beginning of war.