A. I. Kuindzhi: how the artist was born? History of the first Russian impressionist
Unusual, surprising pictures. And biography, absolutely rather poor great events.
Kuindzhi Arkhip Ivanovich was born in 1842 on the suburb of Mariupol in a family of the poor shoemaker - the Greek. He received a surname of Kuindzhi by nickname the grandfather. On - Tatar this word designated “goldsmith“.
Future artist early was deserted and lived at relatives, helping about the house. Learned the initial diploma from the teacher - the Greek, then it was not for long trained at city school - that`s all education.
Further - work at foreign people: he served as a contractor on acceptance of a brick, was a house servant at the Mariupol hlebotorgovets, worked as the retoucher for the photographer.
But one attachment remained with it invariable is a passion to drawing. He always and drew much - in parish books at the contractor, drew on what it is necessary - on paper scraps, on walls - a pencil, oven coal, chalk - all what got if only to draw.
The passion to drawing brought Kuindzhi into Feodosiya, to Ayvazovsky. At the famous marine painter it stayed several months, then went to St. Petersburg. And in 1868 at the academic exhibition showed the picture “Tatar Saklya“ and was entitled for it not cool artist. Same year the Academy accepted it the auditor. It was its first gain.
“The Tatar saklya“ was followed by other pictures in which Ayvazovsky`s influence was felt. He admired the great landscape writer, and it found reflection in his own pictures.
In Academy he made friends with I. Repin, V. Vasnetsov and entered their circle. In 1872 at the academic exhibition his picture “Autumn Impassability of Roads“ appeared. Wrote about this picture that it is original and that the artist well experienced a northern country. The nature becomes the teacher Kuindzhi. All summer of 1872 he will see off on Lake Ladoga, on the island of Valaam, attentively observes, studies nature and writes etudes.
There are two more of its considerable cloths - “Lake Ladoga“ and “On the island of Valaam“.
Kuindzhi two times visited abroad where he examined art of England, France, Belgium, Germany.
At the beginning of 1880 in St. Petersburg the unusual exhibition - an exhibition of the one and only picture opened. Came to many people, the public crowded at doors, densely filled the ladder conducting in showroom. The one and only exposed picture was called “Night on Dnieper“.
And here is how the poet Ya. Polonsky wrote about this picture: “Positively I do not remember that before some picture so long stood... what is? Picture or reality?“ According to Repin, “... the people, in prayful silence considering a picture in the eyes had delight tears. In a gold frame or or in an open window we saw this month, these clouds, this dark distance and these modulations of light, this silvery reflection of month in streams of Dnieper?“
Admired a picture Mendeleyev and Turgenev. The poet Feofanov wrote verses which were set to music to her honor. It was the only case in Russia when the picture gained such wide recognition.
The second exhibition of Kuindzhi in 1882 was the last. More artist did not expose the pictures.
There came years of silence. Kuindzhi ceased to be exposed at the peak of a creative power when he was forty years old. The artist whose pictures gained wide popularity did not want to write worse. Besides, having become the man of means, it became independent and could work on pictures long.
At the beginning of 1900 - x Kuindzhi was ready to showing some works to general public. But in 30 years of the silence the artist created slightly. Not all from its works were equivalent also on art qualities. Eventually it did not expose the pictures.
The painter decided to use the considerable capital for the benefit of the Russian society. In February, 1910 opening of Society of A. I. Kuindzhi took place. According to the will made by the artist all pictures which were in a workshop and all its monetary savings became property of Society. It gave it Crimea estate.
On July 11, 1910 A. I. Kuindzhi died. Kuindzhi`s precepts, the first Russian impressionist, continue to live in works of his pupils.