By candlelight and near them. About what the ancient candle burns?
“Only - that there was a candle,
a candle simple, wax,
and old-fashionedness century
so in memory will become fresh.“
(B. Akhmadullina, “Candle“) As is frequent
and in what occasions we light candles? I mean not that we put in the temple, in church. There all is clear, we light and we put candles at icons when we handle a prayer, we remember someone. But in the last decades fashionable ritual began to light house candles, in honor of holidays, during a romantic dinner, at birthdays. In each cafe and restaurant respecting itself on a table it is also accepted to put candles.
And what the burning candle gives us? Why we so love its live trembling spark? Psychologists consider that conversation by candlelight calms nerves, weakens, and at the same time allows to concentrate on some thought or experience, causes the confidential attitude towards the interlocutor, adjusts on a lyrical harmony. At soft, slightly flickering light we can look in eyes each other, tell the stories, make plans or just drink tea. And then the most gloomy thoughts pass into nothingness, there comes the pacification. As the poet Yury Garin wrote :
Be not frightened, hysterically do not cut
in a temper!
It is necessary just to strike a match, -
I burns a candle,
I again again the soul is warmed,
I light-again around … Again the thin ray of light
lives a circle... to
In general, about candles wrote many verses, by both the famous poets, and bards, everyone can find on the mood. But let`s remember:
When candles came to houses to people?
the First mention of candles belongs approximately to the X century B.C. That, ancient, candles looked simply - the match was located in the vessel filled with special combustible solution.
In ancient Rome began to make so-called “mokanny“ candles (such term “Candle history“ Michael Faraday used in the series of lectures ). The twisted papyrus was dipped in solution from animal fat then the part of solution remained on a match, and it allowed a match to burn. Fat for candles was cheap and easily available therefore such candles were the most widespread many centuries.
In the different countries thought out the candles, using make-shifts, for example, of a plant and insects. It is known that ancient Chinese did candles, using the rice paper rolled in a tubule as a match, and wax was received from mix of local insects with grain crops. In Japan candles did of the wax received from nut trees, and in India cooked fruits of a cinnamon tree.
Through many centuries wax and fat was the main materials for production of candles. Grease candles quickly burned down, when burning gave an unpleasant smell, and wax candles cost very much and were available only to the rich.
In 1816 the French chemist Michel Eugene Chevrel (Michel Eug? ne Chevreul) together with Henri Braconno established that the majority of fats consists of stearin and red oil, and emitted stearin, olein and palmitic acids. The stearin acid received from fat of animals by hydrolysis became those fantastic raw materials which are applied in production of candles to this day. Discovery of stearin can be considered as the real revolution in production of smokeless candles. Stearin wax was strong, firm and burned purely. At once problems of durability of material, quality and purity of burning were solved, and in combination with the invention of wattled matches of a candle approached an ideal. In common with Louis Gey - Lyussaky (Gay - Lussac, Joseph Louis) in 1825 Michel Shevrel acquired the patent for production of stearin candles.
In 1834 the English engineer Josef Morgan designed the car for production of candles. It had an appearance of the cylinder supplied with the moving pistons which pushed out the ready, already cooled down candle. It was the step to establishing mass production.
in the middle of the century, 1850, in the market for the first time appeared raw materials for candles not of an animal origin - paraffin wax, or the paraffin received from oil. It had issinya - white coloring, was strong, burned nebesno - a white flame and did not allocate an unpleasant smell, and, above all - was cheaper than other materials. But it had low temperature of melting, candles bent, flew. The problem managed to be solved, having added stearin acid to paraffin.
At the end of the 19th century of a candle were issued from such materials: from wax - generally for church needs, from paraffin and stearin for the general consumption. With the advent of electricity candle production in the XX century began to decline, but … by the XXI century of a candle became very demanded again.
Where most of all plait of candles?evenings are Especially fashionable
by candlelight in countries of Northern Europe. When I was in Norway, in Oslo, very much surprised me that even in summer cafes, pubs when enough light-on the street (and the majority of bars on weekdays are closed there at 21 o`clock), once you sit down at a little table, the waiter brings business to the first on a table and lights a candle.
But “candle“ the country of Europe can consider by Sweden . According to data of the Central statistical bureau, Swedes, at population about 10 million people, annually burn 36 652,6 tons only of stearin candles. And there are still candles paraffin, helium, wax, reed, etc. In “the decent house“ guests are welcomed by live fire in ancient or modern candlesticks - it is eternal Swedish tradition. The most part of candles is lit during the period from October to March, and the most large number is traditionally burned in December and January, during Christmas holidays and winter vacation when it is cold also day short, and nights long. Now even some theaters arrange performances and concerts by candlelight that is incredibly beautiful! In the ancient hall of Ulriksdal hundreds of people listen to music, looking at a set of uvulas of a flame.
The most favourite candles in Sweden - pure forms, smooth, cone-shaped, without excesses. In Sweden there are a lot of small candle zavodik and workshops, and the biggest factory of stearin candles is in Sweden too. It was based on the South of Stockholm, on the small island Lilyekholmen (Liljeholmen) in 1839 Lars Yukhan Erta . Then in a small wooden lodge together with the friend - the mechanic Yukhan Mikhayelson they began production of stearin candles which called not differently as “royal light“. In a couple of years the place began not to be enough as demand for goods strongly increased, and the factory was expanded. Later, having won competitive fight, they became kings of candles in Sweden. In 70 - e years of the XX century, in connection with the next expansion of production, the factory moved from Lilyekholmen to Oskarskhamn, but kept the historical name.
Now Lilyekholmensky factory - the world`s largest producer of stearin candles though only 80 people work at it, but thanks to automation is made 6000 tons of candles a year. Candles “kronljus are in the greatest demand (kroha - means a crown or a chandelier, and ljus - light). These are the classical white, narrowed at a top candles. Length of their 200 mm, diameter is 23 mm, burning time - 7 hours! Candles burn with an equal and pure flame, are suitable also for simple candlesticks, both for candelabrums, and for ancient chandeliers. They are delivered also to the Royal Court. Swedes prefer to buy them by big packings...
Let beautiful, kind custom - to sit by candlelight - gives all of us pleasure of communication, minute of a pacification and mutual understanding!