Samuel Kolt: for what it was called “the great equalizer“? Welcome
, in all stories about the famous designer of the weapon Samuel Kolta (Samuel Colt) (1814 - 1862) , the American saying that “Eb Lincoln released all people is mentioned, and Sam Kolt made them equal“ .
“The great equalizer“ S. Kolt was the real American: active, skillful and cheeful. Like the hero of the novel Mark Twain of “The Yankee at court of the king Artur“. Which if to remember a plot, in the nineteenth century worked as the master at small-arms factory of the Colt. S. Kolt`s biography still with pleasure is provided as one of examples of implementation of “the American dream“.
Both the head, and hands of young Sam worked as it is necessary. In 14 years he made the first invention: an electric fuse for blasting an underwater mine. The inventor even showed him in operation. But, being placed too close from the coast, the blown-up mine drenched the audience with water from legs to the head. Young Sam had to escape from furious crowd. The mechanical engineer Elisha Ruth (Elisha King Root) (1808 - 1865) covered the lad in the house. Subsequently he became a managing director at small-arms factory C. Colt.
All know: S. Kolt thought up “colt“. But not S. Kolt is an inventor of the gun. Guns are known with 15 - go centuries. Both infantrymen, and cavalrymen used them. But the gun nevertheless the weapon was disposable - too long it was necessary to load it. Attempts to accelerate rate of fire, to make the gun of two - or multibarrelled were unsuccessful. Most often in fight used pair of single shot guns. So, at least, it was possible to make two shots one by one.
Revolvers were other option of increase in rate of fire of guns. In the revolver charged the rotating reel in advance, filling in it gunpowder and zakolachivy a bullet (do not forget that the unitary boss - the invention is quite later). At turn of a drum loaded a kamor it appeared opposite to a trunk and became as if its continuation. Now there was a business “for small“: in some way to set fire to gunpowder in a kamor. Gunpowder, burning down, will push out a bullet. Hurrah, shot!
As we see, and the revolver - not the invention of S. Kolt. The main, apparently, part of “colt“, the charged reel, it was thought up long before in the city of Hartford, State of Connecticut, earned the small-arms factory releasing revolvers which handle was decorated with the image of the running foal. “colt“ in English “foal“.
Emergence of really fighting multicharging revolver was promoted by two circumstances. In - the first the cap which allowed to set fire to gunpowder in a drum “with one blow“ was invented by . Bulky silicon locks consigned to the past. In - the second, mechanical production began to develop . Difficult and exact mechanisms of revolvers became possible to let out in mass quantities. Now it was possible to manufacture also the rotating drum which reliably would close a trunk for the period of production of a shot. Earlier quite often powder gases broke outside in that place where the drum nestled on a trunk. It not only reduced efficiency of a shot, but it was dangerous to the shooter.
S. Kolt, as it often happens, appeared in the right place in due time. He was fond of designing of revolvers and believed that within his powers to make the real military multicharging weapon. Believed so that began to mobilize means for future production. Any actions, any loans! Page. Kolt under the name of “doctor Koult“, the chemist and the scientist, drove about over the country and showed in small American towns action on the person of the amusing gas. Performances were popular, volunteers fell into joyful euphoria, money flew in cash desk.
In 1835 the first efficient model of the revolver was created. It was designed by the armorer from Baltimore John Pearson (John Pearson) . Kolt patented this revolver in England and in America. At once after obtaining the American patent, on March 5, 1836, it based the production.
The firm was in the city of Paterson, the state New - Jersey. Respectively, the first model of the revolver of the Colt, was called “Paterson“ (Paterson). This revolver was made from 1836 to 1842. In 1842 from - for the conflict between partners the company stopped the existence.
But S. Kolta it was already impossible to stop. He “got sick“ with revolvers and wished to resume production. For this purpose he even remembered “youth sins“. Having developed an underwater mine with an electric detonator, he sold the patent to the U.S. Government. At the same time together with the famous American artist, and even more famous inventor Samuel Morse (Samuel Finley Breese Morse) (1791 - 1872) S. Kolt was engaged in improvement of cable communication.
Revolvers, meanwhile, were very demanded in time an americana - the Mexican war of 1846 - 1847. At the beginning of 1847 Kolt received the first state order for production of 1000 revolvers. He designed this weapon together the captain Samuel Walker (Samuel Hamilton Walker) (1817 - 1847) . The captain Walker early died in the war with Mexico. The revolver was called in his honor, Walker.
Institute teachers of details of cars like to tell a legend that mutual compatibility of details of all revolvers was one of conditions of the government order. If not mechanical production and the system of admissions and landings developed by then - they conclude the story, - S. Kolt could never satisfy this condition.
At the beginning of 1850 - x years Kolt opened a weapon workshop in Hartford. In 1852 he became the first American businessman who opened branch of the enterprise in London. In 1855 near Hartford the big small-arms factory which is here and until now was constructed.
In 1861 in the USA Civil war began. The weapon of the Colt was used by both conflicting parties. “The great equalizer“ sold the production to both northerners, and southerners. As speak in America: “It is business, nothing personal“. S. Kolt until the end of war did not live. He suddenly died in 1862. After it there was a fortune in 15 million dollars. At a present course it is about 300 million. From the moment of Samuel Kolt`s entry into weapon business and until the end of his life at its enterprises made more than 400 thousand units of small arms. In due time S. Kolt appeared in ten the richest people of America.
The terrestrial century of Samuel Kolt was short, 47 years. But “colt“ endured the creator and participated in the important events which defined not only borders of the present USA, but also and many lines of the American character and the American society.
Revolvers to the USA came not only to army. Any person could buy freely not such expensive “colt“. He was the reliable defender in case of attack of bandits. Remember an episode with attack on a stagecoach from A. Surikova`s comedy film of “People from Kaputsinov Boulevard“! The aspiration which is initially put in consciousness of Americans to freedom and justice got powerful support from the iron friend. Presence of the weapon at all conflicting parties, strangely enough, allowed “to settle“ situations which otherwise could lead to a lawlessness.
Not without reason the long-barreled cavalry revolver of caliber 45 (11,43 millimeters) was called “Peacekeeper“ (Peacemaker). And still “subjugator of the Wild West“. The gun of the 45th caliber - not the so incidental hero of westerns!