The field marshal Mihail Barclay - - Tolly. Why from - for it Pushkin quarreled with Kutuzov`s relatives?
the Commander Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay - - Tolly long time remained in the shadow of the successor field marshal Kutuzov who gained monasteries of the winner Napoleon and the savior Otechestva in 1812. On Barclay`s share - - Tolly got the most hard time when the Russian armies were forced to recede, avoiding decisive battle.
Retreat is always ambiguously perceived in society. Barclay, according to Karl Marx (by the way, well understanding military questions), “did not concede to ignorant requirements to give battle, proceeding both from ordinary structure of the Russian army, and from the main apartment; it executed retreat with remarkable art, continuously entering into business that, other part of the troops“.
After merging of two Russian armies near Smolensk, Barclay in coordination with P. I. Bagration assumed the general management though formally continued to remain the commander-in-chief only 1 - y the Western army. He managed not only to keep forces of the joint army, but also to cause a considerable loss to Napoleon`s troops. By the way, he was the organizer of guerrilla war in the back of French.
When the commander near Tsarev - Zaymishchem chose a position and began to prepare for decisive battle, to troops there arrived Kutuzov appointed the commander-in-chief of the joint Russian army. Without having wanted to give battle on the place chosen by Barclay (from the military point of view it was better, than then at the village of Borodino), Kutuzov ordered to continue retreat. Decisive battle happened in several days. In many respects thanking Barclay the Russian army stood at Borodino.
Then on Barclay`s account there were valorous victories in a foreign campaign for which he became the full gentleman of the Order of Saint George, it was awarded a gold sword with monasteries and diamonds, received a rank of the field marshal and a title of the prince. But charges of retreat in 1812 and continued by a loop to follow it, making the life of the field marshal miserable though many both in army, and in the Russian society understood that its decisions were only correct during this period. So, N. I. Turgenev noted: “Society which even in Russia does not happen long unfair refused the prejudice against Barclay over time - - Tolly; military will manage to estimate merits it as general, and people impartial will pay a tribute of respect to his integrity and frankness of his character“.
Pushkin was one of the first who at the top of the voice started talking about a true role of Barclay - - Tolly in Napoleon`s defeat. You should not forget that Alexander Sergeyevich was not only the ingenious poet, but also very talented scientist - the historian. Apparently, the opinion on Barclay`s role in last war at the poet was created by the end 20 - x years. It is curious that in a chapter 10 of “Eugene Onegin“, speaking about last war, it calls Barclay, but does not mention Kutuzov:
the Thunder-storm of the twelfth year
Came - who helped us here?
Frenzy of the people,
Barclay, winter or Russian God?
Then there is its well-known poem “Commander“ devoted to Barclay`s portrait - - to Tolly of George Dow`s brush seen by the poet in Military gallery of the Winter Palace. Several versions of the poem as for censorship reasons Pushkin was forced to make several essential notes in the first publications are known. Separate changes are also in author`s hand-written texts.
In the poem the poet at once declares that among hundreds of generals whose portraits decorate gallery, he was interested only Barclay. Then in the poem the text apprehended in society follows it is very ambiguous. I will bring him almost completely to show how the poet and Barclay`s role in war, and his personal tragedy deeply experienced:
O leader unhappy!... Your lot was severe: Everything you sacrificed
to the earth you the stranger.
Impenetrable for a look of common people wild,
In silence went one you with thought great,
I in your name a sound alien not vzlyubya,
the shouts pursuing you,
the People which are mysteriously rescued by you of
Swore over your sacred gray hair.
I that whose sharp mind also comprehended you, To please to them you crafty blamed
I long, is strengthened by the able belief,
You was immovable before the general delusion;
I on a floor - ways was has to at last
concede Silently and the laurel wreath,
I the power, and the plan considered deeply -
I in regimental ranks to be hidden alone.
Tam, obsolete leader! as the ratnik young,
of Lead the cheerful whistle which caught for the first time of
Rushed you to fire, looking for desired death, -
In vain! Your successor gained success hidden
In your chapter. - And you the unrecognized, forgotten by
Hero of the occasion rested - and in a death hour
With contempt, maybe, vospominat about us.
the Opinion on the poem was shared by society. Many met “Commander“ with delight. But not everyone. Probably, the poet did not expect that on him the shaft of charges of belittling of a role of Kutuzov posyptsya. Especially zealously a claim to Pushkin was made by Mikhail Illarionovich`s relatives. Curiously, as among them there was no unity. The daughter Kutuzova Elizabeth Hitrovo remained the venerator of the poet and even warned him that L. I. Golenishchev - Kutuzov sent objections to acceptable committee and prepares for the edition the devastating brochure about the poem “Commander“.
At the end of 1836 the brochure came out. Practically from first lines in it charges to the poet sounded: “In the Commander... some thoughts and verses to the famous commander relating, are absolutely opposite to the known truth, are opposite to his own words, its distinctive properties; consist of fictions, exaggerations, not enough not necessary when business goes about the person whom acts belong to history“. Then detailed analysis of “fictions and exaggerations“ followed.
The author of the brochure had many supporters, he even wrote down in the diary: “My remarks to Pushkin are a subject of conversation of society all the time; all find them out of comparisons with works of this sort and do not miss an opportunity napereryv to praise highly them“.
Pushkin was forced to justify himself, having published special article in which wrote in “Contemporary“: “This poem contains several sad reflections about the honored commander who in great 1812 passed the first half of a field, and took on the share all adversities of retreat, all responsibility for inevitable losses, predostavya to the immortal successor glory of repulse, victories and a full celebration. I could not think that here it was possible to see intention to offend feeling of national pride and diligence to humiliate sacred glory of Kutuzov; however I of that was accused.
Really we have to be ungrateful to Barclay`s merits - - Tolly because Kutuzov is great? Really after twenty-five year silence of poetry it is not allowed to name to say it with participation and affection?... Its retreat which nowadays is clear and necessary action seemed not to so that; not only the people hardened and which are indignant grumbled, but even skilled soldiers bitterly reproached it and almost in eyes called the traitor. Barclay who is not inspiring the power of attorney to army to him subject, surrounded with hostility, yazvimy evil tongue, but convinced in himself, silently going towards the intimate aim and conceding the power, without having managed to be repaid before eyes of Russia, will remain forever in the history highly poetic person“.
By the way, Pushkin did not oppose commanders each other at all, he has many verses in which he enthusiastically speaks about Kutuzov, including noting that Mikhail Illarionovich “was invested with the national power of attorney“. In the middle of polemic, in 1836, in the poem to “Artist“ it once again accurately designated the position, having laconically declared: “There is an initiator Barclay, and here a sovershitel Kutuzov“, having emphasized that the victory in war is reached them by common efforts.
In my opinion, Pushkin the poem not only resolutely raised a voice in protection of the commander underestimated by contemporaries, in fact, he brought his name out of oblivion and forced society to look at its role and its fulfillments in a new way.
All the time placed in the places, having returned to M. B. Barclay - - Tolly deserved glory. In St. Petersburg, Riga, Smolensk, Chernyakhovsk, Tartu, at Borodino Field monuments to the commander are established, the books devoted to it are published and republished. That who will become interested in its destiny, I recommend very interesting book of A. G. Tartakovsky “Unsolved Barclay“.
Once Denis Davydov shortly, but capaciously expressed Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay`s essence - - Tolly: “Courageous and cool to a neveroyatiya“. It the commander also remained in the history.