What in your name, the Hungarian city of Sekeshfekhervar?
Well, apparently, what here difficult?! Sekesh is a fekher - var. And here I, for example, did not learn to say the name of this Hungarian city correctly. How many asked familiar representatives of local population to reproduce the name of a toponym from among native speakers as attentively listened attentively to their pronunciation, in the most thorough way tracing an articulation, and all the same … I begin to speak and already on the second syllable on the eyes taken aside, eloquent smiles, and sometimes and to frank laughter, I feel - not. Not that! And, it seems, all exactly - in - exactly, as well as they, Hungarians:
- Sekesh is a fekher - var.
The annoying that theoretically - anything … Well, there is nothing difficult in this word! Hungarian “Szek“ is similar our, Russian - “throne“. Which, in turn, the same, as a throne - a symbol of imperial glory and power. And still - the place of stay of the ruling sovereign. “Feher“ in translation from Hungarian - “white“. And last component - “Var“. On which and without dictionary it is possible to guess. Sharvar, Kaposvar, Sigetvar … Yes “city“ it.
And if all and together? “The white capital (capital) city“ turns out …. Quite so. Sekeshfekhervar - the first Hungarian capital which in 972 among almost impassable bogs and bogs was put by the prince Gyoza. Only then the city was called on Latin manners - Alba Regiya. That, however, practically the same means, as the Hungarian option - “the white royal city“.
And that is why among almost impassable bogs and bogs?
Much later, in the 13th century, the Hungarian medieval chronicler Shimon Kezai put a beautiful legend under justification of the choice of the place of the first capital hail of all Hungarians by Gyoza. Like, exactly here, here in this place where now there is a handsome Sekeshfekher, the grandfather of the prince, the great leader Arpad, broke the tent when Hungarians, having transported through Danube, entered Pannoniya. And this place became the first Hungarian settlement on these lands. Well, and the grandson continued what there began his grandfather. Also turned a pioneer settlement into the first capital.
Who knows, maybe, everything and was. Or about that. But, as a rule, in usual life everything is much simpler. Hungarians came not to empty lands. And to them there lived the Avarian and Slavic tribes here. Lived to themselves, did not grieve, and here suddenly - bang … And suddenly - Hungarians. Move, a pier. We here too want.
And from what, actually, to a perepug to move - that? The turnip at desires, newly arrived from surplus, will not burst?!
Not the most peace were those eight decades that passed since then as Arpad brought the tribespeople into Pannoniya, to the basis the prince Gyoza of the first capital hail of all Hungarians. And, most likely, questions of safety of the capital, princely residence and the state treasury stood not on the last place when the decision was made that here it is necessary to put … Among bogs and bogs. Which then more than once will help out also Sekeshfekhervar, and its inhabitants.
So, for example, the city was not damaged during Mongol at all - the Tatar invasion of 1242. From - for big and the strong high water which flooded vicinities, enemy army as tried could not approach the Hungarian capital. Also Mongols of Batyya had to leave from Sekeshfekhervar not solono hlebavsh.
And the city, by the way, hoped not only for bogs and bogs. Already at the son of the prince Gyoza, the king Ishtvana I Svyaty (1001 - 1038), he received new and rather powerful impulse to the development. For years of its board in the capital built not only one of the most beautiful and majestic European basilicas of that time, but also constructed the powerful fortress protected by earth shaft and deep ditches. And in the 14th century, at Layoshe I Veliky, instead of earth walls Sekeshfekhervarsky fortress had stone.
Here and it turned out that the strong, well strengthened fortress and one of the most majestic basilicas of Europe - yes in one place. And it on long, centuries-old prospect defined destiny of the city and its important place in the history of Hungary.
Throughout all Middle Ages in Sekeshfekhervare the Hungarian kings were crowned. The first, in 1038, - the son of the Venetian doge Peter Orscheolo who became the king at will of the uncle Ishtvan I Svyaty. The last, in 1440, - Janos the II Zhigmond.
The city was the place of continuous storage of symbols of the royalty - a coronation cloak and a crown. That crown which was once assigned by the father Sylvester to the head of the first Hungarian king - Ishtvan I, after canonized. And since the 14th century in Hungary the rule of three indispensable conditions which strict observance, and only it, could serve as a guarantee of legality of the royalty worked:
- only the crown of the Saint Ishtvana can be assigned to the head of the Hungarian king;
- assignment of a crown belongs to an exclusive right of the bishop Estergomsky;
- crowning has to take place in Sekeshfekhervar.
They also passed. In the white city of the Hungarian kings. Because violation of any of three indispensable conditions called into question into legality and legitimacy of finding in power of this or that king. Which, in fact, the king, it seems, as well as was not … It not in Sekeshfekhervare. Or not the bishop Estergomsky to it on the head …
of All in the Sekeshfekhervarsky basilica took place 37 (on some sources - 38) crownings of the Hungarian kings and 39 - their spouses, queens. Here they began the majestic way. Here also finished. Under the arches of a capital basilica 15 Hungarian kings were buried.
In 1038 - Ishtvan I Svyata, in 1141 - m - Bela II, in 1382 - m - Layosh I Veliky, in 1439 - m - Albert Habsburg … The last, in 1490, Matyash Corwin passed away here.
Same year the city, in peak of the Polish dynasty Yagellonov, took one more applicant for the Hungarian throne - Maximilian Habsburg. And in Hungary the next civil strife began. Which could not bring and did not lead to anything good.
Literally in half a century, in 1543, Sekeshfekhervar, after a long siege, storm took Ottoman troops under leadership of the sultan Suleyman Velikolepny. Long 145 years Turks owned the city. But having even destroyed many buildings, having destroyed and having plundered royal burials, having converted churches into mosques, and the well-known basilica - into a powder warehouse, they could not change that contents and that internal core which was put in the name of the city by his founder, the prince Gyoza.
Yes, at Turks the city was not Sekeshfekhervar. It was renamed in Istolni Belgrad. But it … The same “The white capital (capital) city“ what it was both at the prince Gyoz, and at the king Matyashe Corwin.
It it remains and now. Modern Sekeshfekhervar. Dynamically developing city It is central - the Zadunaysky region.
In its name it is still held in remembrance those people who stood at the origins of the Hungarian statehood. Also pride present the Magyar for the ancestors, the country in which they live, and its history, rich in events, sounds.
Well, and how the city of veins is farther after in 1688 it was exempted from the Turkish yoke Austrian imperial by troops, I will try to tell too. But as - nibud another time …