How Arina Rodionovna, the nurse A. Pushkin, became for the poet “the confidante of magic old times“?
the Name of the nurse of the great poet Arina Rodionovna are known practically to each school student. All know also about what the nurse loved as it spoke the “Alexander Sergeyevich`s angel“. The poet always appreciated her kindness and attachment.
Pushkin said more than once that Arina Rodionovna became a prototype of the nurse of the main character Tatyana in the poem “Eugene Onegin“. It also “brought“ Arina Rodionovna in a number of female images in the tragedy “Boris Godunov“, the play “Mermaid“, the novel “Peter the Great`s Blackamoor“. Much to it it was devoted poetic lines.
However we were not reached by the full biography of Arina Rodionovna, memories of it meet in records of some contemporaries of Pushkin, but many of them are superficial. It is possible therefore Pushkin scholars conduct disputes on Arina Rodionovna and on that role whom she played in life and works of the poet … of
Arina Rodionovna (1758 - 1827) to this day was born in the village of Suyda (there is also other opinion - in of Lampovo) that in the Koporsky County of the St. Petersburg province. It is known that in serf Rodion Yakovlev`s family there were seven children. The girl of the house was called Arina, it is a colloquial form of Irina. As the serf could not have the surname, in metric documents it is written down as Rodionov, by name the father. In literature she is known as Arina Rodionovna, is more rare under a surname of Yakovlev. And it is not mentioned as Matveeva, under a surname of the husband at all. In life of that time for all she was Rodionovna (in old age). By the way, Pushkin did not call it by name, for him it always remained the nurse.
When the great-grandfather of the great poet - A. P. Hannibal, bought villages in the Koporsky County at column F. And. Apraksin, together with villages he redeemed also serfs including Arina. The girl early learned poverty, burdens of country life. It is known only that in 23 years Arina Rodionovna married and moved to live to the village of Kobrino, near Gatchina. Owners took away it in the nurse.
The grandmother Pushkina, M. A. Hannibal, at first “transferred“ to the young nurse to hands of the nephew Alexey, brother`s son and when in a family there was her first granddaughter Olga, elder sister of the poet, Arina Rodionovna began to live in their house almost constantly. Together with it in the house there lived the wet nurse of future poet, Arina Rodionovna`s namesake, Ulyana Yakovleva. According to some information, it was also the first nurse of little Sasha.
There are data and that M. A. Hannibal presented the house in which there lived Arina Rodionovna`s family to it in gratitude for good work. When members of big family of Pushkin began to move to Moscow, they sold the lands earlier belonging to them, bought new, - and everywhere they were followed by Arina Rodionovna. It and is clear. Her husband died of alcoholism by then. It (it had four juvenile children) belief and the truth served misters. There is a version that the grandma Pushkina wanted to affranchise the nurse, but that refused. According to other version it is known that M. A. Hannibal at first thought to release Arina Rodionovna, but did not begin to do it.
Almost till 1811, before the receipt in lyceum, A. Pushkin lived under the same roof with Arina Rodionovna. Not casually the poet, addressing Arina Rodionovna, often calls her not only “nurse“, but also “mamushka“. Especially warm are relations between the poet and the nurse in the village of Mikhaylovsk, in days of a Pushkin`s exile. In Mikhaylovsk Arina Rodionovna not just guarded the estate, but also ran all domonical business. Here what was written by the poet those years to the brother Lev: “Till a lunch I write notes, I have late dinner … In the evening of the fairy tale I listen“ . He wrote down fairy tales which the nurse knew great variety, songs, with interest “collected“ the sayings told it, proverbs, national expressions. There is an opinion that Arina Rodionovna told Pushkina about a hut on chicken legs, about the dead tsarevna and seven athletes.
The last years of the life she lived in St. Petersburg in a family of the sister of the poet, Olga Pushkina (on the husband - Pavlishcheva). Arina Rodionovna died at the age of 70 years, in 1828. Such is simple history of life of the nurse of A. Pushkin whom he called “the confidante of magic old times“ “the girlfriend of my youth“, “the kind girlfriend“ etc. of
the poet in the works created a romantic image of the favourite nurse. This plan was continued by his contemporaries. We practically do not know about what was Arina Rodionovna in real life. Even only several lines are told about her appearance: “The old woman respectable - the person full, gray-haired, loving the pet …“
But after Arina Rodionovna`s death many Pushkin scholars began to exaggerate excessively her role in works of the poet. In Soviet period Arina Rodionovna`s role increases with a new force. In a festive atmosphere celebrate its anniversaries. One of them is connected with 180 - the anniversary since birth, another was dated to 110 - y to anniversary from the date of death.
However, both earlier, and now, there is an opposite version of an image of Arina Rodionovna. Some scientists refer to the fact that the poet does not call the nurse the tutor, the patroness, the conductress, the intermediary anywhere as it was treated by the biographer Pushkina, P. V. Annenkov. Supporters of this opinion declare that Arina Rodionovna was an ordinary, ordinary woman, but garrulous and kind. And, as the poet N. Yazykov noted in the memoirs: “… and cheerful sobutylnitsa“. But if to open A. Pushkin`s compositions, then he in comparison with the nurse, could be called as the bitter drunkard as many times described any feasts.
But if to be released from myths and fictions around a name of Arina Rodionovna, then it is possible to call, at least, two indisputable facts. The great poet, using folklore in the creativity, it was obliged in many respects to it the nurse. And it is indisputable that she loved the pupil, without demanding anything in exchange.
It is possible therefore Alexander Pushkin spoke: “If the future generation honors my name, also this poor old woman has to be not forgotten“ .