“Purgatory“. What the name blabs out?
In the second edition of the Big Soviet encyclopedia to Alexey Nikolaevich Tolstoy (1883 - 1945) and article devoted big. In it all ranks and awards granting the right to “the red count“ to be enlisted in a pantheon of the Soviet literature are scrupulously listed.
When reading similar panegyrics, there is an impression as if you are present at a funeral. Under the crying music bear on it is black - red small pillows of an award deceased. The dead man moves afterwards, put in varnished grobik, forever calmed and, therefore, ready to canonization. That is to preparation.
But Alexey Nikolaevich Tolstoy, for all that aerobatics of a timeserving which it showed during lifetime in varnished grobik “the outstanding Soviet writer“ vlazit hardly. And not therefore only that a body it was mighty. Also talent literary the nature presented it fully. Special proofs for this purpose are not required. As a certain retired regent from the well-known novel of M. A. Bulgakov, “spoke... take you any five pages from any its novel, and without any certificate you are convinced that you deal with the writer“ .
Simply speaking, it is interesting to read A. N. Tolstoy`s books, unlike creations of the majority of “sovpis“. As they say, you will not spend on drink talent. And completely you will not sell too. Even if itself you will be on sale with giblets.
One of the weighty awards received by A. N. Tolstoy - the Stalin award of the first degree in 1943 for the trilogy “Purgatory“. For those times the highest mark of devotion of the writer to official Soviet ideological canons. And personally to the one who gave this award.
Present thoughtful, though not too educated, to the reader name of the trilogy A. N. Tolstoy will seem strange. What circulation such and on what torments is? But it was not required to contemporaries of the writer of a special explanation.
Hundred years ago any educated person in Russia knew about “Circulation of the Virgin on torments“, the known work of the Russian spiritual literature of the 12th century. Work it was apocryphal, that is in a church canon not entered, but despite it, esteemed and darling. Besides, “Circulation...“ was work purely Russian. In other Christian countries this apocryphal story is not known. Therefore the translation of the title of the trilogy of A. N. Tolstoy on the western languages represented a problem for translators. For the European reader of such bible legend simply does not exist.
About what this legend tells? The virgin asks the archangel Mikhail to show it as suffer in hell of soul of sinners. The archangel executes her will, shows a picture of infernal tortures and explains which of sinners, for what is punished. The virgin addresses the son and asks about simplification of a fate of unfortunate. Having listened to Mother`s prayers, the Lord cancels tortures in hell annually for fifty days: from Easter till the Trinity.
The known fact from A. N. Tolstoy`s biography: He did not accept October revolution and in 1919 emigrated from Odessa through Constantinople to Paris. In 1920 the Russian writer - the emigrant writes, and in 1922 publishes the novel in which he tries to understand that happened to it and to many other fugitives from Russia captured by revolt. To this - that the name “Purgatory“ was ideally suited for the novel. For the author, as well as for the first readers expelled from the native earth by the taken place events, these events - hell in which to all of them, sinners, it was rewarded according to the deserts. For sins in former, still pre-war and pre-revolutionary life. And hope for disposal - only God and compassionate maiden Maria.
However, hope for God and itself not ploshay. The author of the novel decided to get out of hell by means of own forces and own talent. In 1923 A. N. Tolstoy comes back to the Soviet Union as “the red count“ and joins in literary process on again found Homeland. And further everything goes according to a rough joke that the girl the one who feeds her “dances“.
A. N. Tolstoy fairly processes the written novel and develops it in ideologically correct party. The novel began to be called “Sisters“. It is supplemented by two more books, “The eighteenth year“ (1927 - 1928) and “Gloomy morning“ (1940 - 1941), written already in full accordance with “A short course of history of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks)“. “Purgatory“ becomes the name of all trilogy now. And rather badly corresponds to the general optimistic pathos of creation which comes to the end not in Paris, and in Moscow, in the Bolshoi Theatre. Heroes listen not “to Chio here - Chio - San“ some thoughtless, and the report on electrification of Russia. Circulations are finished, and torments are finished too. We still will see the sky in diamonds! Not for fifty days, and forever. And at what here Christ Redeemer heavenly? In total in a hand of Christ Redeemer sitting in the Kremlin!
Perhaps, the huge talent of the writer - the deceiver should be had at that time to assure of it and itself, and readers. However, A. N. Tolstoy had a reader already another, trustful and not very competent. Which hardly guessed the sense enclosed in rather strange name. What to them, Komsomol members, Virgin?
The writer perfectly knew about it. It is probable therefore kept not quite “political competent“ name of the trilogy, did not replace it with something type: “A light way“. Having met in 1937 one of the friends who remained in Paris, the artist Yu. P. Annenkov, Alexey Nikolaevich quite frankly admitted: “I sometimes feel that I experienced on our expensive homeland some psychological or more likely pathological deformation. But whether you know that the people who were born there in 1917, in a year of the well-known October and which were twenty years old now for them it is not “deformation“, and most natural “formation“ at all: Soviet formation...“
However, the girl whom “dance“ for a dinner at restaurant is not obliged to admire recklessly mind and other qualities of the gentleman at all. On the contrary, the more cynically she will accompany the partner, the better will cope with the duties. And here A. N. Tolstoy fell into the main sin Soviet and Russian too, the intellectuals: bit the hand giving.
“I am a cynic, - he was frank in the same conversation with Yu. P. Annenkov, - to me on everything to spit! I am a mere mortal who wants to live, well to live, and all here. My literary creativity? To me and on it to spit! It is necessary to write propagandny plays? The hell with him, I also will write them! But only it is not so easy as it is possible to think... I already see before me all Ivanov Groznykh and other Rasputin the rehabilitated, become Marxists and glorified. To me to spit! This gymnastics even amuses me! It is necessary, really, to be an acrobat...“
After death M. Gorky Alexey Tolstoy took the place of the first Soviet writer. The first not on a position and not on talent as it would like to think. In the same conversation with Yu. P. Annenkov he carelessly let out the main secret of the Soviet glory. All Soviet writers “somersault“, and here the count among them - only he is one.
It seems that on the example of the count A. N. Tolstoy companion Stalin more or less precisely determined the price which should be paid artists. The separate payment was appointed for loyalty, for obedience, for a skillful, nimble feather. Also it turned out, frankly speaking, not so already expensively. For the last nobility the cost plus followed too. Single, but lifelong. As for virginity loss.