What happens in Russia to migration? The Russian economist, the board member of the Moscow Institute of modern development Evgeny Gontmakher told
about migratory processes, the program for return of compatriots, xenophobia and “leakage of minds“.
Evgeny Shlyomovich, tell, please, what main migratory processes happen in Russia now?
Now three migration flows are: the first is a temporary labor migration - when people come to work and leave. The second: people arrived to Russia, worked here and want to remain on permanent residence and to obtain the Russian citizenship. The third is a program for return of compatriots, and the narrowest of all three streams.
What is represented by the program for return of compatriots? the Project was developed by
a few years ago with the patriotic purposes. Initially its essence was in the following: those people who once left Russia or descendants of those who left from there, but at the same time feel the communication with Russia, had the right to return home - irrespective of their age, the residence, marital status, working capacity and other factors. But, unfortunately, this project as a result “poured out“ in enough - the narrow program. It was supposed that within this program hundreds of thousands of people will move to Russia. But people only of working-age were actually invited. At the same time cut people far from the Russian ethnos: that is if you the Ukrainian, then you have to have gone to Ukraine - to the sovereign state, but not to Russia. And it is, in my opinion, a mistake as in principle to us it would be good according to this program to accept those who were connected with the Soviet Union be they from the Caucasus or Central Asia.
Similar programs for return of compatriots exist for example, in Germany, Israel, Greece and some other countries. And at us following the results of this program to Russia for few years there arrived only several thousands of compatriots - that at all not that migration flow on which counted. It is one of indicators of poor quality of our migration policy. Confused the purpose and real practice - well then and did not undertake absolutely.
What situation at us with other two streams?
If to speak about temporary labor migration and about the temporary labor migration passing into the PERMANENT RESIDENCE, then these two directions very massive on the volume that, by the way, strongly helps out us. For me and for all reasonable not politized experts, it is obvious that the Russian labor market will not do without temporary labor migrants - even in the conditions of crisis. Because there are workplaces for which the Russian citizens do not apply, and these people can apply - and thank God.
There is a problem: there is no statistics, and about that how many labor migrants in the territory of Russia are, it is almost impossible to tell. At us with the CIS countries (except Turkmenistan) a visa-free regime. The legalized migrants who got the work permit in our country in Russia about one and a half million people. But those who are here illegally: for example, builds dachas, repairs apartments - such people three times more if not in four - there are no exact data on their number.
What becomes to simplify for popular experts from - for borders obtaining the work permit? Now in the State Duma the bill on liberalization of obtaining the work permit by temporary labor migrants is considered by
. And the bill will be intended for highly qualified personnel that is very important as we lack them. Russia generally attracts malokvalifirovanny shots - so-called “cheap labor“ which is all the same necessary to us. There will not be enough only our one citizens for work, for example, on building or in the sphere zhilishchno - municipal services.
Muscovites are not hired janitors at all - as showed experiments which were made by correspondents of some mass media. I can explain
Ya why: Muscovites badly work. For such money which pays janitors the Muscovite even if will work, then will sweep the street so that you will not see it. Also at the same time will swear at the head zhilishchno - municipal office, often and to abuse alcohol. And the Tajik or the Uzbek for the same money sweeps streets is good-quality and it is good, and does not get drunk - as knows that he then will take off from work in no time. Here in what all difference.
What is not enough for improvement of working conditions of migrants in Russia? to us lacks
, first of all, interstate projects - arrangements with the countries of an exit - from where to us temporary labor migrants go. Creation rossiysko - Tajik would be advisable (rossiysko - Uzbek, etc.) structures - for example, labor exchanges where people even before departure to Russia can find to themselves the suitable place of work and issue all permissions necessary to them.
If to speak about internal migration, then from what regions of Russia most often move to Moscow or St. Petersburg?
U us the problem of “stripping“ of east areas - Siberia and the Far East from where people still began to go to Soviet period is and continue still. For example, on Sakhalin for the last 20 years the population decreased by a third. Leave because there a low wage, very narrow labor market, territorial remoteness - try to buy the ticket from It is southern - Sakhalinsk to Moscow and back: it costs 20 thousand rubles. Besides Moscow and St. Petersburg still move to the South (in particular, to the Krasnodar and Stavropol regions, the Rostov and Volgograd regions) there it is possible to buy a piece of the earth and climate it is better.
And what regions on the contrary people do not seek to leave? with
Generally from the southern regions of Russia mentioned above, and also from Severo - the Caucasian district (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan and other national republics) - they can temporarily leave to work from there, but families usually there continue to live.
At what level in general now there is internal migration? our population is handicapped
. Except for the compelled migration from the East on the South and the West of the country, it is difficult to people to move, let us assume, from Nizhny Novgorod to Samara. For example, for this purpose they lack information - do not know where your children will go to school, what shops, what policlinics there and so forth.
But the Internet can help with such cases?
Not in everything and not always. I would not exaggerate its value. Especially as there can write one, and in reality other information can be perfect. For those who are going to move, have to be, at least, the system of information guarantees provided by government bodies.
How you estimate reduction of a capital quota of involvement of guest workers?
The fact that the quota was reduced, it, on the one hand, normally as in the conditions of crisis the considerable part of workplaces which were occupied by guest workers was reduced. But here it is important not to miss: the quota was reduced nearly twice, this quite sharp reduction. And if economic revival (which signs already are), then in the city a large number of workplaces which only migrants can occupy will open begins. And from - for the fact that the quota will be quickly settled not to hire guest workers any more.
What with migration in Russia will be farther - what your forecast?
I Think that in the next years migration flows to Russia and from Russia, and also in Russia will be formed proceeding from changes in our economic policy. If we can do everything - to exempt an enterprise initiative from the state and administrative pressure, to revitalize investment climate, then the country needs a large number of working hands - and qualified, and low-skill. Here then it will be necessary to put into practice modern mechanisms of regulation of migration flows about some of which I mentioned above.