In the International day of biological diversity. Immortality on Earth? Yes!
Already whole decade 22 - go May are noted, according to the decision of the United Nations General Assembly, the International day of biological diversity. It is possible to designate this date safely “a holiday with tears in the eyes“: according to official figures, about 60 percent of ecological system degrade or is used by the person thoughtlessly and recklessly.
And itself Goma the sapiens is subject to threats to health and life. Not least it became the reason that the scientific world began to look narrowly at cohabitants on the planet: whether it is possible to correct health of mankind with their help and to protect both from old, and from all of new diseases, and even to provide extension of life or even to threaten on immortal existence?
Stop. Here it is worth explaining what the science understands as immortality. Biological immortality means lack of increase in function of mortality, since some age. In other words, cages are considered immortal if are not limited in number of divisions. By the way, at the majority of cages of a human body the limit makes 52 divisions.
But it appears, on Earth there are ageless creations. You do not trust? And it is already proved. Well, here, for example …
This little one from one to twenty millimeters long similar to a glove from - for the shchupalets, represents a family of fresh-water sedentary coelenterates and lives in standing reservoirs and the rivers with a slow current, being attached to water plants or a bottom. Has “character“ of the hypodynamic single.
And here under you: since the end of the 19th century scientists are haunted by the assumption of theoretical immortality of a hydra. And here, at last, Daniel Martinez in 1997 finished four years` experiment on this subject, having declared lack of mortality owing to aging among three groups of hydras.
And all because they possess the highest regeneration ability: even being split in half, this elementary as it is considered, the being increases each half to whole. Of area around a mouth it constantly forms new cages which go down to so-called “sole“.
And still the hydra possesses surprising ability to feel danger, even in the form of the radioactive beams which are not distinguished by other animals and seeks to retire from their source. Small doses of radiation strengthen process of its reproduction and increase ability to self-restoration. Here to you and the elementary!.
The Swiss professor Pierre Tardent very witty spoke of life expectancy of a hydra: “The hydra will live until the laboratorian does not break a test tube in which she lives!“. However, this position has opponents who consider useful to specify: this creation is immortal only potentially and not only because it has enemies - devourers in the form of infusorians and amoebas, but also because the hydra does not grow old due to fast renewability of cages only in usual conditions for it. If to change them on adverse, then she can grow old and die.
her Latin name - Turritopsis nutricula, in a literal translation - the wet nurse. The crumb has the thin-walled dome-shaped form with a diameter about 4 - 5 mm and shchupalets whose number accrues from eight in youth to 80 - 90 at adult age. In recent years it became famous for the fact that from the Caribbean Region where initially lived, extended worldwide. According to group of the British researchers, development of water spaces by it in various parts of the world does not break yet the operating ecosystems, but which - which of biologists already calls this process “world silent invasion“.
Unlike the avoiding tribespeople of hydras, these jellyfishes - desperate collectivist. They unite in big colonies and float together. But the main feature not in it: at emergence of adverse conditions of Turritopsis nutricula “sink into dotage“, and in the most literal sense.
They turn … in polyps on a leg with which their life engendered by budding begins. Tell, unless not a miracle, really: to turn life cycle back, that is to rejuvenate itself independently?! And the majority of other jellyfishes after participation in a reproductive cycle die. However, our heroine is not insured from violent death: it can be eaten or killed. But the old age is not familiar to it in principle.
the Sea hedgehog
In coastal waters of the Red Sea, on shoal of the western coast of America and lives the prickly kid from the category of invertebrates which is not subject to aging in the Sea of Japan, and breeds the more actively, than becomes more senior. And was considered until recently that to a sea hedgehog life term is measured no more than 15 years. However after detection on one of representatives of a tag with date “1805“ this opinion burst as a soap bubble. If to add that it stayed in full health and possessed real reproductive ability then was to what to marvel.
Studying these erinaceouses, scientists came to a conclusion that the death from an old age does not threaten them, they can die from diseases, attack of predators from among sea inhabitants or by hand field men. As for enemies from the underwater world, on this subject sea hedgehogs learned to escape in the way … clonings at a larval stage.
Having felt proximity of the enemy, the larva is divided into two smaller which are less noticeable. In a month each of them becomes a little two-centimetric hedgehog, after two years the size doubles, and then the smooth gain on one millimeter a year within two decades begins.
Concerning destruction by the person immortal inhabitants of the ocean did not think up yet a protectant and as caviar of sea hedgehogs is considered a thin delicacy and an effective natural immunomodulator, their production is conducted in more and more growing volumes. In only one Japan annual consumption of dishes makes not less than 500 tons of them.
Fantastic fertility rescues from full destruction only them: only for one period of reproduction the female of an edible hedgehog of Echinus esculentus vymetyvat about 20 million berries! And all - biomass “immortal“ decreases. Meanwhile, studying of sea hedgehogs can far advance science. For example, the genome of a purple sea hedgehog contains 23,3 thousand genes, and from them more than 7 thousand are the general with human.
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It is, of course, not the full review, but also in a short look it suggests an idea: say that life on Earth arose in water, - it is similar, its steadiest forms which are not knowing an old age were put in the same place.