Black. From where beret sources symbolics of this color?
“Are difficult to look for a black cat in the dark room, especially, when it is not there“ (Confucius).
Generally, ideal black is even not color. This total absence of color, darkness, non-existence, “a black hole“. Therefore any subject cannot be perceived by us ideally black, that is, nothing reflecting.
By the way, an astronomical “black hole“, according to assumptions of scientists, the star which was so squeezed by forces of the gravitation that even light is not capable “to escape“ from this attraction.
In ordinary life the fact that we call black is only options too dark. The expert - the colourist Gunn of Johansson spoke: “There are surprising shades black. You look at it - as in the tunnel, and the tunnel infinite“. The deepest blackness from fabrics to us is shown by a black velvet.
The fear of the person of darkness, at night, a blindness awarded this color with the most gloomy associations. Black - color of mourning, grief, loss, death. The Satan in Christianity is the Prince of Darkness (we will remember the famous Mephistopheles who was to Faust in an appearance of a black poodle), the awful Hindu goddess Kali has black (or it is violet - black) skin, also Anubis - Ancient Egyptian god of a next world was represented black.
“Black death“ called, the plague carried by black rats which in the second half mowed clean the 14th century nearly a third of the European population.
The role black as colors of denial was especially brightly shown in a Christian monkhood. Here it symbolized denial of worldly goods, peculiar “death for the world“.
You without effort can continue the list of associations: black raven as the messenger of death, a black cat as an unhappy sign, black magic, satanic rites, a black list, black humour, a rainy day, dangerous and envious black eyes, expression “to drink on - black“ …
“... The black person
Drives a finger according to the vile book
I, snuffling over me,
As over deceased the monk,
Reads me life
of Some scoundrel and debauchee,
Scaring melancholy and stiff soul.
“A black raven, a black raven,
What you curl over me?
You production will not wait for
the Black raven, I not yours“.
“I only slightly opened a sun blind - there was a Raven age-old,
Is noisy putting in order mourning of the plumage...
“... About ominous ancient Voron where Pluto stretched a gloom, of
As you is proud was called, there where the gloom stretched Pluto?“
Karknul Voron “Nevermore“.
also the black flag by the ships of pirates had to make Frightening impression. How here not to remember and other piracy attribute - “a black tag“ - delivery of which symbolized a sentence to the pirate who violated rules. And though a “black tag“ - a fruit of the imagination of R. L. Stephenson, author of “Treasure island“, write that in reality its place was taken by the card of death as which the peak ace acted more often.
Anarchist groups became one more owners of a black banner. It is known that the black panel fluttered over groups of the father Makhno. But researchers consider that such flag found a protest symbol role against the state in 1831 - during revolt of workers in the French Lyon. They chose color of a banner as if in peak to a monarchic flag where white color prevailed.
I] V. Kandinsky:
“Black color internally sounds as Nothing without opportunities as dead. Anything after fading of the Sun, as eternal silence without future and hope. Presented musically, black is a full final pause after which continuation is similar to the beginning of the new world as thanks to this pause complete is finished forever - the circle became isolated“.
Often this color is associated with dirt, with “dirty manual labor“. From there is also an expression “draft work“, that is, preliminary, demanding blots, corrections, clarifications (we will remember the alchemical term “work in black“ or the famous word “draft copy“ is good all).
Not in all cultures black bears unambiguous gloomy value. In well-known it is black - a white circle “the yin - yan“ black “yin“ symbolizes water and a passive feminine. And the Chinese emperor Shi - Juan who replaced a “red“ dynasty of Zhou even chose black in the color (a pier, “water extinguishes fire“).
In Japan black color meant nobility and experience. Not without reason the black belt in karate means the highest step of skill.
Muslims also gave black positive lines.
L. Mironova, D. Ivanov “Symbolics of color“:
the Black slave from fairy tales “1001 nights“ eulogizes the color in such expressions: “... if night was not more worthy, Allah would not swear it and did not put it ahead of day... Unless you do not know that blackness - decoration of youth and when the gray hair descends, pleasures leave and death time comes? And if blackness was not most worthy, Allah would not place it in depth of heart and an eye. And among blackness advantages what from it is received by ink with which write Allah`s words … And besides, unless it is good to meet the lover differently how at night? …“
Caliphs of a dynasty Abbasidov liked to dress black color. Their banner also was black. Amir Hosrov Dekhlevi writes:
“Color nice Abbasidov - black color.
Possesses it to the first of planets,
I the gloom of nights always happens black,
Descends it rest life-giving.
I a birthmark of the beauty is black,
As a resin, her thick hair a wave“.
For quite obvious reasons this color without any negative symbolics is used also by negroid race. How here not to remember a joke from KVN that in the Abkhazian statement of “the Swan Lake“ by the hero the black swan is.
Black is also secret, unknown, closed, hidden. Widely known thanks to a television quiz show “That? Where? When?“, expression “a black box“ in science means system which internal mechanism of work is unknown.
We will add “under-the-counter cash“, “the black market“, “rear entrance“, a black stone of the Kaaba, sacred for Muslims, and addiction to black clothes of members of different secret societies here. In the Cabbala “black fire“ - an epithet of absolute light and wisdom. And black it because “incomprehensible for our limited reason“.
The black clothes are also considered as a symbol of internal force and security. The so-called “small black dress“ of Coco Chanel not without reason found such popularity because united independence and elegance. It is interesting that initially Chanel`s plan was directly connected with traditional symbolics of black - the dress was thought up in memory of the died beloved. However it changed the relation to black color in women`s clothing - from now on it was not considered only as mourning. Simplicity, an opportunity to vary accessories and relative low cost made “a small black dress“ madly popular.
The gloomy, closed, strict and terrible black color does not leave the last three decades also youth fashion. It is favourite color as maskulinno - leather metalworkers and bikers, and fancy also emo is ready. At us advantageous qualities of black color were successfully used in the clothes by the actor Mikhail Boyarsky and the singer Victor Tsoi.
The fashion designer Christian Lacroix somehow precisely noticed that he “black is the beginning of everything, a reference point, a contour, a case and only then contents“. It should be added that this color - a fine background. Near it any other color becomes lighter and is brighter. This quality is quite often used in interior design.
Black color in general most shows to advantage in combination with other flowers. It is fair also in relation to white color about which we will talk in following - final article of a cycle.