Crowd, system or collective: how to operate group of people?
Popular wisdom say: “One head well, and two - is better“. At the same time, any psychologist knows that the big mass of people behave as the primitive organism, much less reasonable, than each certain representative of group. This phenomenon was described by the famous Russian scientific academician V. M. Bekhterev. Then that with increase in number of people in group its general intellectual level sharply decreases? Popular wisdom is not right?
Crowd or collective?
It is all about two factors defining structure of group of people: principle of selection and controllability. If the principle of selection by which the group of people was created is casual, then such group is called “crowd“. And it about it was told by the academician Bekhterev: “The crowd behaves more silly, than the individual, and stops being set of reasonable beings. “
Let`s make speculative experiment: let`s determine the principle of selection of people, for example, by date of birth. Or in the place of stay at a given time. Or on a hair color, skin, or on growth. Anyway we will receive crowd as on intelligence degree, on the vital way, experience, skills these groups will be extremely diverse, and relationship of people is not certain. And the we thus will create big group, that will be in this group less (in any case, first) internal communications, the reactions of this group, subjects less her cumulative intelligence will be more primitive.
we Will review the simplest example of definition of mental abilities of collective. Let each member of collective can solve an objective with probability of river. Let the decision of collective have to be unanimous. Then 2 persons will solve this problem with probability of p 2 , three - p 3 , and N people - p N . It is obvious that the more the collective, the is less probability of the solution of a task. For example, at p = 0. 7 two persons solve a problem already less than in half of cases, and 3 already less than 0th. 35...
But if the principle of selection of people is not casual, we have absolutely other picture! It is not crowd any more, it is collective. For example, student`s audience. Or meeting of “partkhozaktiv“ of the area. Or conference of gynecologists. All these people have much more of general, than in the examples given above. They understand each other better, they have a similar experience, tenor of life, skills and interests. The collective has much more internal communications, than crowd. It is much more difficult organism, and it has much more high intelligence.
we Will review the same example with the solution of a task, but we will make the assumption that the decision of collective is defined by a majority vote. The minority submits to the majority. It is the most important sign of collective. So, let one person solves a problem with probability of river. Two persons will solve this problem besides with probability of p 2 . But 3 persons will solve a problem with probability of p 3 +3p 2 (1 - p). At r =0. 7 it is already 0. 784. I.e. three it is already cleverer, than one!
Crowd or system?
Not less important factor defining rationality of group of people is controllability. Controllability also defines intra group communications, but not chaotic, as in collective, and tree.
If we designate people in group in the form of points, and communication between them in the form of the pieces connecting these points, then in absolutely operated group at us the tree will turn out. Its trunk (on - scientific, a tree root) is a leader of group, from it branches go to leaders of subgroups, from them to leaders of smaller associations and so on to rank-and-file members. Rank-and-file members - leaves of this tree.
Happens that in group there are no intermediate leaders, there are only one commander and rank-and-file members of group. For example, a class where the leader is the teacher. We see the structured operated groups in army, in militia, in other “power“ departments. In absolutely operated groups the intelligence of group does not decrease with growth of number of members, it is constant and equal to intelligence of the leader of group. At the same time the principle of selection of people in group does not matter. For example, in army take people on year of birth.
System or collective?
Absolutely operated system can solve problems quickly and effectively. But even from our primitive example it is visible that the collective can be more reasonable than one person. Is it impossible to unite somehow advantages of the operated group and collective?
Still as it is possible! For this purpose in the operated group the special unit representing collective is created. It is called “staff“. The staff is created from not casually selected people having similar experience, approximately equal qualification, stable vnitrigruppovy relations. The staff is capable to find solutions of tasks better, than separately taken leader of group. But nevertheless responsibility for work of group is born by the leader therefore he is over a staff, but listens to his opinion and generally makes the solutions proposed by a staff.
So what it is necessary to make to increase intelligence of group of people? It is necessary to select group with similar interests, experience, tenor of life, compatible with each other. And just it is not enough to create such collective, it is necessary to bring up still it so that all his members effectively interacted. That their knowledge and experience did not compete, and supplemented each other how it experts of transfer “do That? Where? When?“. And for this purpose it is necessary to increase controllability of collective.
Everything described above can be reduced in one formula:
IQG = IQA/N C + IQL/N R
where IQG - intellectual coefficient of group,
N - number of members of group,
of IQA - average intellectual coefficient of the member of group,
of IQL - intellectual coefficient of the leader of group,
C - degree of accident (randomness) of the choice of people in group (0 - minimum, 1 - maximum),
R - degree of Uncontrollability of group (0 - minimum, 1 - maximum).
At C = 1 and R = 1 we receive crowd which intelligence aspires to zero at N striving for infinity.
At C = 0 and R = 1 we receive collective which intelligence is approximately equal to average intelligence of group.
At C = 1 and R = 0 we receive a system which intelligence is equal to intelligence of the leader of group.
At C = 0 and R = 0 we receive the good result - a system with a staff.
Certainly, this formula reflects ideal model, and nothing ideal in real life happens. There are no absolutely operated groups, there are no ideally compatible collectives, besides, happen in groups and anti-the leaders resisting to leaders and leading to split of group or occupying management of group. Nevertheless, all who anyway deal with issues of management of people should pay the closest attention to two factors of C and R.
My best regards to collective authors and readers “Schools of Life. ru“.