Cruiser “Aurora“. What is it known for, except a single shot in 1917?
In May of this year to one of the ships, oldest in the world, which are Voyenno`s part - navy, are executed 110 years. For the fighting ship age not just very respectable, and unique. Wide popularity to the cruiser “Aurora“ was brought by a single shot of its tool on the night of October 25, 1917, it is considered that it served as a signal to storm of the Winter Palace.
The ship became a revolution symbol for a long time, and not all know now that behind its stern tens of thousands of miles of ocean campaigns, participation in three wars, and also many thousands of officers prepared for fleet.
“Aurora“ was put to Sankt - the St. Petersburg ship-building shipyard “New admiralty“ in May, 1897, and on May 11, 1900 is floated. The cruiser received the name in honor of sailing 44 - the gun frigate “Aurora“ which became famous in fights in the Far East during war of 1853 - 56 years. The fighting ships of the Russian fleet the cruiser became operational in July, 1903. It was the standard ship, in parallel with it two more cruisers of the same project - “Diana“ and “Pallada“ were under construction.
At the solid sizes (length of 126,7 meters and width of 16,8 meters), “Aurora“ had weak booking - the ship belonged to the category of protected cruisers 1 - go a rank. Originally on it even the part of artillery pieces had no broneshchit. The cruiser possessed good arms, on it was established: 152 - mm of tools - 8, 75 - mm - 24, 37 - mm - 8, 63,5 - mm - 2, and also three torpedo tubes. Subsequently the quantity, and caliber of tools repeatedly changed, appeared antiaircraft guns, machine guns and the device for installation of mine obstacles.
At so solid arms the cruiser had low speed: maximum - it is slightly more than 19 knots, economic - only 11 knots (for comparison, the cruiser “Varangian“ had 24 and 16 knots) and small range of autonomous swimming (2500 miles at an economic speed and 1320 miles on maximum) that considerably reduced possibilities of its fighting application. “Aurora“ intended for independent actions on small removal from places of basing, and also for support in fight of battleships at actions as a part of a squadron.
In the first campaign the cruiser left already on September 25, 1903, it was supposed that it will come on strengthening of a squadron to the Port - Artur. But in connection with the beginning of war with Japan, the cruiser “Aurora“ which joined in the Mediterranean Sea group of the ships counter - the admiral A. A. Virenius, was returned to Baltic.
The cruiser “Aurora“ went to a new campaign in August, 1904 as a part of a squadron vice-the admiral Z. P. Rozhestvensky, going to the Pacific Ocean for participation in Russko - the Japanese war. The campaign for the cruiser began unsuccessfully. On October 10 several shells from other Russian ships which fired the English fishing vessels taken in fog for torpedo boats by mistake got to it. On the cruiser the ship priest died and one sailor was wounded.
The cruiser “Aurora“ accepted baptism of fire in Tsusimsky fight on May 14. In a course of action, lasting for the cruiser from 14:30 till 18:00 o`clock, “Aurora“ received about 10 direct hits of shells. On the cruiser repeatedly there were fires, several compartments were flooded, five tools and all ranging stations failed. The captain the captain of 1 rank E. R. Egoryev and 14 crew members died, 83 persons were wounded. But the ship did not lose the course and at night together with the cruisers “Oleg“ and “Pearls“, having beaten off the Japanese torpedo boats, could come off prosecution of the opponent. Could not break through on the North towards Vladivostok of the cruiser, and were forced to go to neutral Philippine port Manila where were interned by Americans.
To Baltic the cruiser “Aurora“ returned in 1906. The ship passed capital repairs then became the training ship on which cadets and naval cadets of the Sea case did practical training. At that time the pupils of military school who successfully completed a full course of sciences were entitled ship naval cadets and went in long (about one year and more) swimming by the fighting ships after which took examinations and received the first naval officer rank “warrant officer“.
Till summer of 1912 “Aurora“ made several swimmings with groups of naval cadets of the Sea case of other educational institutions of fleet, some time was the ship - a statsioner in a bay of Court in Crete. During World War I “Aurora“ as a part of 2 - y crews of cruisers was at war on Baltic, generally carrying out prospecting and patrol functions, covering statement of mine obstacles and action of the light ships. At this time fire power of the ship was increased, instead of six 75 - mm of tools were established 152 - tool mm, and also five antiaircraft guns.
At the end of 1916 the cruiser “Aurora“ became on repair in Petrograd where participated in revolutionary events. In crew of the cruiser influence of Bolsheviks therefore during preparation for armed revolt on October 25, 1917 to the ship charged to enter Neva was strong and to take Nikolayevsky Bridge connecting Vasilyevsky Island to the central part of the city under protection. Exactly from there the well-known shot of “Aurora“ also sounded. According to a number of historians, the shot was given much earlier, than storm Winter began. It does not play a basic role for a long time as “Aurora“ became a revolution symbol.
Thanks to participation in those events, “Aurora“ the name was kept though the majority of the fighting ships were renamed by the new power. During Civil war the crew of “Aurora“ considerably thinned. And in 1919 the ship was put on preservation. The decision on return of the ship to a system was made in the fall of 1922. The cruiser “Aurora“ became again the educational ship by which till 1940 there passed sea practice cadets voyenno - sea educational institutions.
The Great Patriotic War the cruiser “Aurora“ met in the port of Oranienbaum (nowadays Hugo - the western part of St. Petersburg). Directly the cruiser practically did not participate in fights, except reflection of raids of enemy aircraft. By the ship there was only a small part of crew, other seamen, having removed from the cruiser the majority of tools, smashed the enemy on approaches to Leningrad.
In three years of blockade bombs and shells repeatedly got to the cruiser. The ship had to be put on soil as through holes a large amount of water came to holds. But even in such hardest conditions the small crew of “Aurora“ did not stop fight for survivability of the ship. In the summer of 1944 the cruiser was lifted from soil and directed to repair.
In 1948 the repaired cruiser “Aurora“ was put on anchors at Petrogradskaya Embankment. Till 1956 it was used as the educational ship of the Leningrad Nakhimov Naval School, and then on it the museum which became the Central Voyenno`s branch - the sea museum was open. In 1992 on the cruiser “Aurora“ again (in 75 years!) the Andreevsky colors were hoisted.
110 years the cruiser “Aurora“ is in a system. After it became the museum, the cruiser was visited by tens of millions of people to touch live history nice Russian voyenno - navy. It is natural that from the original “Aurora“ floated in May, 1900 on the cruiser there were less than 50 percent, but it does not belittle historical value of the ship, with honor which carried by the Andreevsky flag through legendary Tsusimsky battle. Not for nothing say that onboard “Aurora“ history comes to life.