Spirituality as the highest expediency of
the Inner world of the person “is penetrated“ by eternal values of his existence - values of truth, good, beauty, love etc. The philosophical judgment of problems of spirituality assumes complex studying of transpersonal structures of consciousness and conscious activity of the personality in comprehension of the “highest“ meanings of human life. Spirituality is defined, in general, as belonging to area of spirit. The spirit can be considered as ability of the world and the person to the movement.
“The moment came to understand, - P. Tellar de Chardin wrote in the first half of the XX century, - that satisfactory interpretation of a universum, even positivistic, has to cover not only external, but also inside of things, not only matter, but also spirit. True physics that which will ever manage to include the comprehensive person in integral idea of the world“. [9. c. 40] the Spirit in human measurement can be reduced to consciousness, thinking, mental ability, to what induces to the movement, to action, i.e. to activity.
Each movement has to have a reason. Aristotle distinguished four types of the reasons operating in the world: a form, the purpose, i.e. “for the sake of what“, matter (“from what“), or a substratum, and a movement source, or “the creating beginning“. [1. t. 1. page 146] the Form, matter, sources of the movement are a subject of studying of special sciences and only expediency (target causality) is a philosophizing subject as the purpose - concept more subjective and theoretical.
It is difficult to see target causality in physical processes, there is no hierarchy - distribution of processes from the lowest to the highest. In biology there is a becoming complicated hierarchy of objects and there is an opportunity to speak about the development purpose. There is a concept of the purpose as choice option. And only in the field of mental the target reason gains crucial importance.
Considering spirit as the inducing beginning of mental activity, it is necessary to carry out division. Also properties of material objects and property of living beings, of course, are inherent in reasonable beings, but they are enough studied within the corresponding sciences. As spirituality of the person it is considered to be what distinguishes him from animals. For example, valuable content of consciousness. The person is a being spiritual on the potentialities, opportunities. But the person who realized the spiritual opportunities the person purposeful whose purposes are detached from pishchevaritelno - reproductive functions of an organism whose activity based on valuable knowledge becomes expedient is considered.
Therefore consideration of a role of expediency and in spirituality is of a great interest. The person is capable to build up the expedient relationship with world around. It means that in prichinno - investigative communication of the activity as the major link it includes the conscious choice of the purpose. The purpose is defined in some system of meanings - outlook. N. A. Berdyaev noted that spirituality - is integrity of life. [2. c. 255]
Spirituality can be represented as a harmonious frame of reference, the ordered outlook which is capable to produce the human life purposes. The modern culturological thought fixes that “recently in public lexicon concept spirituality is used in designation of world outlook, zhizneoriyentiruyushchy motives of behavior of the personality“. [4, with. 131] I.e., possessing system of the principles, views, values, ideals, beliefs, people, the social group, society in general define for themselves the attitude towards reality, the direction of the activity, the vital purposes.
The highest authority of human judgments is the reason which has crucial importance and for spirituality. The concept reason is opened by Immanuel Kant as ability to unite, bring into system all that it is possible to comprehend, think of. Kant considered that the reason seeks to carry out “systematicity of knowledge, i.e. communication of knowledge according to one principle“. [5. t. 3. pages 553]
the Purpose and sense are defined only in system, and the reason is both ability and the requirement of system at once. Kant speaks: “The system is unity of the diverse knowledge united by one idea“ [5. t. The 3rd page 680] Idea can be represented as a movement trajectory to the purpose here.
Now we will consider how the presented view of spirituality is carried out in the history of philosophical and religious searches of mankind.
Already at ancient Greeks spirituality is formed in the form of two systems: idealism and materialism. The philosophical understanding of ideal goes back to Platon revealing life bases which have universal character. Under the influence of Platon Aristotle, in metaphysics, cosmology and physics, develops thought of expediency of the nature and all world process.
Development of representations which we refer to spirituality can be tracked on development it is religious - philosophical doctrine - teleology (Greek teleos - the purpose, logos - the doctrine, the word), the doctrine about existence in the world of the objective extra human purposes and expediency. So, Aristotle`s cosmology brightly teleologic. Transferred the supervision made at research of private classes of the phenomena and objects of the nature in which the facts of expediency of a structure of organic beings meet constantly Aristotle by analogy for the whole world. It is represented to Aristotle improbable that expediency and rationality could arise in separate objects if these properties the world as whole has no. The movement purpose, according to Aristotle, is the aspiration of substance to “form“. Aristotle assumes not only expedient nature of world process, but also unity of its purpose.
The teleology in the different types takes place in stoicism, Neoplatonism, the concept the preset Leibniz`s harmony, the doctrine about “world soul“ of Schelling, objective idealism of Hegel, a neokantianstvo, neothomism, a personalizm etc. Views of ancient religions brightly teleologic. The Christian church always actively used achievements of antique philosophical thought for the purposes, having replaced teleology with theology.
Then in Ancient Greece the materialism arises, there are doctrines hostile to teleologic view. It cosmology of atomist and Anaksagor. Later these views led to emergence of atheism - the doctrine denying divine (expedient) essence of the universe. In global sense the atheism should be considered spiritless, but as it is impossible to avoid consistently meanings, in private and atheists can be spiritual.
Denying divinity of the universe, atheists looked for meanings of the world too. Since modern times, the natural sciences (the physicist, the mechanic, astronomy) explained processes of the movement in the nature with the natural reasons. In the organic world the Darwinism gave understanding of natural nature of expediency and the genetics, molecular biology and cybernetics deepened. The Marxist philosophy scientifically explained expediency of forms of public work of people with their actions according to objective laws and as Marxists considered, overcame teleology in the sphere of public life. “Laws of the outside world, nature … - Lenin wrote, - an essence of a basis of expedient activity of the person“ [6. t. 29, page 169].
It is necessary to understand what disappears under “the natural reasons“ and “objective laws“. Generalizing, one may say, that materialists did not manage to reach sources, to understand bases: space, time, matter, energy, gravitation and many other things. They generalized some factual parties of processes only a little, having reduced them to mathematical formulas. So, A. F. Losev wrote: “laws of physics and chemistry are absolutely identical also on condition of reality of matter, and on condition of its unreality and true subjectivity“ [7. page 51].
Both systems have shortcomings. Idealistic suffer from small validity, an insufficient evidence of the purposes and meanings considered by them. Spiritual irrationality and transcendence are inherent, they act as the requirement to consider the incomprehensible or not learned yet purposes.
Materialistic surprise with primitivism and, sometimes, deliberate narrowing of space of the purposes and meanings of human life. Supporters of materialistic systems take an element very painfully unknown and furthermore incomprehensible.
But also to materialism idealistic concepts of the highest expediency as possibilities of development of matter are available. Many representatives of a philosophical current of “the Russian cosmism“ spoke about high mission of a material world. Their views did not gain due distribution as entered the conflict with the Marxism dominating then which for ideological motives adopted provisions of atheism. The Marxism spoke about inevitability of emergence of perfect society, but bashfully held back a possibility of the birth of a bogochelovechestvo.
Considering the aforesaid to choose the best of the different directions, it is perspective to predetermine spirituality as the human activity sent to search, disclosure and the statement of the purposes and meanings of life.
In views of spirituality the dualism - substratny and information is formed.
Recently there was a new term - a passionarity which can be considered as “kind“ of spirituality, entered by Gumilev for studying of development of ethnoses. “Formation of new ethnos is always connected with presence at some individuals of invincible internal aspiration to the purposeful activity always connected with change of an environment, public and natural …“ [3. c. 305]. There is an opinion that development of ethnoses is influenced by a certain type of solar energy, so, it influences a passionarity - spirituality. Such opinion has the right for existence, but it seems unproductive in philosophical researches.
Many religious mystics try to present spirituality a kind of energy - promise to learn to register it devices, try to photograph various luminescences, fields. Maybe there are various energy, auras, biofields, but it is a kind of power muscles, and they have the mediated relation, as well as muscles to spirituality corporal.
E. Roerich writes: “In Agni Yoga first of all spiritual development without which all instructions and all means are half if it is no more, invalid is required“. [8. page 138.]
Religious spirituality can be attributed to various substrata - to Svyaty Dukh, collective unconscious, telepathic communication with future generations, but for philosophical researches it is more interesting to deal with information component of spirituality in a separation from substratny.
In Christian religion it is told about the spiritual person as about driven by the Spirit Svyaty. But it is possible to say that such person is guided by the beliefs developed by Christian outlook. And this information component of spirituality can and has to be studied.
Studying of the purposes and meanings of life constantly has to be under close attention of philosophy, science, literature and art. And in many respects so it also is, but studying happens in particulars. Spirituality has to become the integrator of separate ideas of the purposes and meaning of life. Philosophy through spirituality studying as hierarchies of the regulating and organizing meanings, can influence processes of self-organization of cultural space.
Spirituality can be born as a result of philosophical research. Designing by reason of ideas can lead to such concepts which are present no analog in experience (not yet), but when such experiment can be conducted, it becomes the purpose, the driving beginning - spirit of human existence. But here still there is a problem and whether this purpose is the benefit? Often it can be understood (if it in general is possible), having only reached it.
The mankind enters the critical period of the development, force it, at the wrong application, are capable to lead to self-damage. In heavy and, in many respects, a drama situation there was a world community in connection with an economic crisis behind which spirituality crisis is visible. Studying of spirituality, its problems is capable to give to processes of self-organization of the person and mankind purposeful character.
Need for detection of meanings, their transfer and updating as the activity purposes is more and more sharply felt. There is a need for determination of quality of the meanings offered by various religious organizations. The philosophical judgment of the purposes and meanings which throughout the millennia were represented as spiritual is required, their introduction to the existing scientific paradigm is required. For this purpose spirituality consideration as aspirations to the highest everything the considering expediency of life seems perspective.
And, spirituality studying, as well as any phenomenon, will have practical value only when there is an opportunity to survey it entirely.
LIST OF REFERENCES
1. Aristotle Sochineniya in four volumes. M, “Thought“, 1978.
2. Berdyaev N. A. About appointment of the person: Experience of paradoxical ethics//Berdyaev N. A. Experience of paradoxical ethics. Kharkiv: Folio, 2003.
3. Gumilev L. N. Ethnogenesis and biosphere of Earth. SPb. “Crystal“ 2001
4. Kononenko B. I. The big explanatory dictionary on cultural science. M.: Veche of 2000; Nuclear heating plant, 2003.
5. Kant I. Sochineniya. In - 6 - ti volumes, M., 1964.
6. Lenin V. I. Complete collection soch. M, 1958-1965.
7. Losev A. F. Dialectics of the myth. - M.: Thought, 2001.
8. Elena Roerich`s letters, 1929 - 1938. In 2 t. T. 1. - Mn. Belarusian fund Rerikhov; “Sergey Tarasevich“ 1994.
9. Tellar de Chardin P. Fenomen of the person. M.: Science, 1987.