Korney Chukovsky. In what a secret of his eternal youth?
of Korney Chukovsky know as the author of unsurpassed children`s poems on Mucha - Tsokotukh, Barmaley and the Crocodile. Actually, the majority loves it for these images and considers as exclusively children`s writer.
However this definition not absolutely precisely characterizes Chukovsky. He not only witnessed several literary eras (was on friendly terms with Blok, Kuprin, Gumilev, Akhmatova, Pasternak, Mayakovsky), but also actively participated in literary process - made an outstanding career of the journalist, literary critic, translator, biographer and memoirist. Chukovsky began to write children`s works which brought it love of children and popularity incidentally - but he all life bore idea of the philosophical treatise which did not publish.
the PhilosopherNikolay Vasilyevich Korneychukov was born
in 1882 in St. Petersburg. Mother of future writer was a peasant a sort from the Poltava province, and it grew in Odessa. The father, the St. Petersburg student from a prosperous family, the guy did not remember (that threw the wife with two small children on hands) and had complex long time from - for the status “illegitimate“.
It ended five classes of a gymnasium, early left the house not to “live off“ mother. Was engaged in self-education - visited city library, read, by own definition, “everyone“, and in 16 - summer age the philosophical treatise began to consider. The young man so was fond of idea that began to consider fragments from future work, walking on streets, and even to read them to the janitor.
Running forward, say, that Chukovsky considered all the creative achievements unworthy this work to he throughout which life came back many times, however did not publish - considered it insufficiently perfect. Nikolay worked with work on the treatise as the painter and independently learned foreign languages - French and English.
Actually, phenomenal working capacity and concentration at work distinguished Chukovsky from other people. He devoted to literature 62 years for which he worked daily without days off! “… to rise at 5 in the morning and to lay down at 9 in the evening, not to play cards and dominoes, not to visit and not to invite guests“ is only some of rules which to himself were established by Chukovsky to save time for fruitful work.
But we will return to the treatise. Of course, 16 - the summer young man lacked life and literary experience to finish business. But once he read a fragment from work to the companion Vladimir Zhabotinsky who, on happy combination of circumstances, worked in the Odesskiye Novosti newspaper. From his easy hand the fragment of the treatise of Chukovsky was printed in the newspaper in the heading “Interesting Thought“. So journalistic career of future writer began - he became the observer of culture in the edition, subscribing by a pseudonym - Korney Chukovsky .
In 1904, for the third year of work in the newspaper, the young man was sent to London where he spent one and a half years. After return from England began to cooperate with the satirical magazine “Vesy“. Subsequently began to issue own satirical magazine “Signal“. In 1905 for the publication of antigovernmental materials six-months arrest left. Even in prison Chukovsky did not spend time in vain - he made the first poetry translation of Volt Vitmen which and till our time is considered one of the best. Chukokkal`s
Chukovsky in 1906 with the young wife Maria removed into the Finnish country of Kuokkala. Here he got acquainted with the famous artist Ilya Repin with whom he made friends. It accepted at a sebyaa of other famous contemporaries: Alexander Kuprin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Leonid Andreyev, Vladimir Korolenko stayed with Chukovsky, and became heroes of his memoirs later. Autographs of these writers were included into the satirical almanac “Chukokkala“ which the writer supplemented and “republished“ throughout all life. At the moment copies of the almanac are considered as cultural value: on its pages outstanding persons of the last century - from Repin to Solzhenitsyn left the autographs.
In 1917 the writer began research of creativity of Nekrasov and devoted to it several years - of course, with diligence inherent in it and fault-finding. The book “Nekrasov`s Skill“ for which subsequently Chukovsky got the Lenin award (1962) - the highest literary award of those times turned out to be consequence of big research work. In parallel he investigated Dostoyevsky`s creativity, Chekhov and modern to it authors thanks to what he became the authoritative critic.
Gosteval in Kuokkale and the famous writer Maxim Gorky who directed then Parusa publishing house. At the request of Gorky in 1916 Chukovsky headed children`s department of this publishing house. Being already an authoritative critic and the influential personality in literary circles, wrote the first poem for children - “Crocodile“. In 1923 there are “Moydodyr“ and “Tarakanishche“, later “the Fly - Tsokotukh“, “Barmalya“ and “Phone“, and also other works for children who at the same time are the full poetic texts containing the irony and implication clear only to adults.
By the way, there is a version that Chukovsky expressed the disguised criticism of society of that time in children`s poems: condemned dictatorship. The crocodile who swallowed the sun - the new power which appeared after revolution, and “the Fly - Tsokotukh“ is in general a story about the careless talker who got to talking not in “that place“ and in unsuccessful time. These assumptions still demand proofs or denials, but, as we know, the smoke without fire does not happen. In 30 - e years children`s works of Chukovsky underwent cruel criticism and persecutions, among party editors even the term “chukovshchina“ appeared. Speak to soften the relation to the creativity, the writer undertook to write the poem “Cheerful Kolkhoziya“, but did not keep the promise.
the Oxford doctorIs probable
, the most difficult for the writer of steel 30 - e years. Except criticism of own creativity, it had to endure heavy personal losses. His daughter Maria (Murochka) died of an illness, in 1938 - the m was shot the writer`s son-in-law, the physicist Matvei Bronstein. Chukovsky, to learn about his destiny, pestered several years instances. Work rescued from a depression.
It worked on Kipling, Twain, O. Henry, Shakespeare`s translations, Conan of Doyle. Wrote the translations of works of D. Defoe, J. Grinvud for children. Was engaged in a translation theory and created one of the most authoritative books “High Art“ (1936) in this branch. Began to write memoirs on which worked until the end of life.
It is difficult to list all achievements of Chukovsky and it to do and it is not necessary. Apparently, mad popularity became the most bigger award for the writer. In beams of public love he could feel in a certain measure protected from excess attention of the authorities. Ventured work on the translation of the Bible for children. The book under the name “Babel Tower and Other Bible Legends“ was even published in Children`s Literature publishing house in 1968, but all circulation everything is destroyed (printed “Tower“ only in 1990 - m).
In 1962 with official delegation Chukovsky once again visited England where he for numerous achievements was awarded ranks of the honourable doctor of literature of the Oxford university. Speak, his lecture began words: “In youth I was a painter“ .
The writer died in 1969 - m, at the age of 87 years. Till last days he spoke: “When I take a feather in hand, I am not left by illusion that I still young and me it was executed twenty recently“ .