Women in science and equipment. What did also what are well-known for?
In the 21st century in Russia, as well as in many other countries, women have the equal rights with men in access to the higher education and occupations by science. Therefore we have a ratio of women and men in educational and scientific institutions approximately makes 50:50, and in higher education institutions - it is slightly more, and in science - it is slightly less. Now this fact is perceived by society as quite normal. But so was not always.
Actually in Russia free access to the higher education and occupations by science of the woman was received only at the Soviet power, in 20 - x years of the XX century. And before the Russian women got higher education and pursued science only abroad, in those countries where discrimination of women was cancelled. For progress in study the Russian women gained honourable diplomas of the best universities of Europe more than once.
It is possible to remember many women having outstanding merits before world science. So, Albert Einstein Milev`s wife Maric which studied together with him at the Zurich polytechnical institute, was actually Einstein`s coauthor in creation of its main works subsequently though her name was regularly deleted at their publication.
Maria Sklodovskaya`s works - Curie on physics and chemistry were noted by two Nobel Prizes - in 1903 on physics, and in 1911 in chemistry. Its works were continued by the daughter, Iren Zholio - Curie whose name called unit of activity of radioactive isotopes.
At the beginning of the XX century in Sorbonne several Russian women defended the doctoral dissertations at once: Kramarskaya, Bilevich - Stankievich, Borodino. However in the homeland to them it was refused teaching and occupations by science.
The outstanding mathematician Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya became doctor of science in 1874, but, having returned home, did not find application for the knowledge. And though subsequently she was elected the honorary academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in Russia was not employed it.
Having equal opportunities in education and approximately identical progress in studying of any sciences, at the choice of an occupation of the woman and man have as it appeared, different preferences. Even in the USA where it is more the woman, than in other countries, deal with equipment, in engineering men prevail. In medicine and biology of women it is more, and among students - veterinarians they make two thirds. The exact reasons of these preferences serve as a discussion subject: whether the biology, whether the developed unconscious prejudices and stereotypes, whether education is guilty of a family, whether something else.
Prompt increase in number of women in world science is necessary on 60 - e years of the last century. It is explained by growth of educational level of women and partly rise of the movement for equality of women - feminism. Participation of women in scientifically - technical activity is the is most notable in Russia, countries of Eastern Europe, in the USA, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Canada. The greatest activity of women is observed in biological, chemical, medical branches of knowledge. In the conditions of positive economic development involvement of women in the sphere of highly skilled work and scientific creativity is considered a positive factor now and is stimulated with the state.
However in the conditions of economic instability and growth of unemployment (for example as now) as practice shows, women suffer more men. Recently the new wave of feminization of science which reason decrease of the attractiveness of scientific activity is that leads to outflow of men to more prestigious areas is observed (there where the salary is more). Besides, to the USA and drugikhekonomichesk the developed countries of women began to consider as the ďan additional resourceď allowing to accelerate development scientifically - technical progress and to keep scientific leadership.
In science of Russia women make more than a half of personnel structure in chemistry, biology, geography, medicine, agriculture, architecture, pharmacology, the humanities now (except history). However in physics, mathematics, mechanics and astronomy the number of men exceeds the number of women by 1,5 - 2,5 times. At the same time in Russia, as well as in the majority of the countries developed in the scientific relation, the number of the women belonging to scientific elite is small. Among the leaders taking the responsibility for development of the whole scientific direction, the main posts are usually held by men. Among academicians and corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences there are only 2,8% of women. One of rare exceptions - the academician Tatyana Ivanovna Zaslavskaya, the creator Novosibirsk economic - sociological school.
From outstanding Russian scientists - women there is a special wish to mark out Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermolyeva who in 1942 developed the domestic penicillin which saved lives of millions of people. Ermolyeva is a doctor, the microbiologist and bakteriokhimik, in 1945 was elected the corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, in 1965 - the academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, the honored worker of science of the Russian Federation. The form of penicillin developed by it was considered as the best in the world and saved millions of lives in Russia and beyond its limits, including - life of the author of these lines (from pneumonia).
In time, difficult for science, the Russian scientists - women continue to work fruitfully in science. Handed to UNESCO in 2008 10 grants on continuation of scientific researches by our scientist - to the women who made an outstanding contribution to development of natural sciences. Sofya Artyomkina (Novosibirsk) got a grant for basic researches on synthesis and use of compounds of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. Evgenia Bogomolova (St. Petersburg) is marked out for research of micromycetes - the fungi damaging buildings from within. Oksana Kalyuzhnaya (Moscow) participated in studying of microorganisms - simbiont of unique Baikal sponges. Galina Lukova (Moscow) is known as the researcher of photonics of metalloorganic complexes. Anastasia Makaryeva (St. Petersburg) develops the theory of biotic regulation of atmospheric carbon on the land and in the ocean. Ekaterina Merzlyak (Moscow) participated in creation of a nanomarker for a mark of proteinaceous molecules in an organism. Lada Puntus (Moscow) - the leading expert on creation of new luminescent materials. Nadezhda Ustyuzhanina (Moscow) develops medicines on the basis of biomedical chemistry. Anna Fyodorova (Moscow) is the largest specialist in remote sensing of aerosols of carbon dioxide in ranges of planets of terrestrial group. Irena Artamonova (Moscow) - the leading expert on bioinformatics (to new science on a joint of mathematics and biology).
And there is a wish to exclaim (by an example long ago the passed years) - glory to the Russian women continuing to work successfully, despite crisis and other difficulties, in glory to Russia, its sciences and equipment!
Also give them God more health, beauty and all that it is actually necessary for them! Amen!