What we know of children of war?
Concept “children of war“ quite volume. There is a lot of all children of war - their millions: starting with those whose childhood broke on June 22, 1941 and finishing those who were born in the first days of May, 1945. If to take dates of birth into account, then the considerable historical period 18 - 19 years long turns out. All been born these years can be called children of war with good reason.
The historiography of the Great Patriotic War contains a huge number of descriptions of destinies of the children born in the early thirties. Of course, the people as could, preserved the children against adult problems, but even those who did not adjoin directly to military operations, the work and the help to adults in the decision household (and not only) problems at the level of the families indirectly too took part in war and too brought the feasible contribution to the Victory.
They early matured, their parents or directly participated in military operations, or directed all the efforts on the labor front, being the reliable back of the Soviet Army. “All for the front! In total for a victory!“ - the main slogan of those times.
First of all it is necessary to mark out those whose children`s destinies were crossed with war directly. Many of them were real heroes. They became “sons of regiments“ , bore hard soldier`s service. Quite often children in guerrilla groups became not only intelligence agents, but also saboteurs.
“Adoption“ of boys and little girls by military hospitals was quite mass phenomenon of army life. If the hospital was in the area of military operations, then treatment of lightly wounded fighters was its specialization. In these voyenno - field hospitals the medical staff was exposed to almost same risk, as well as fighters on a front line.
There were chronically not enough medical personnel, doctors and nurses often worked around the clock without rest, and the help of children`s hands was demanded extremely here. Was to provide to children on forces life of wounded fighters: to be on duty at their beds, to do bandagings, to feed from a spoon and it is at least simple to read fresh newspapers and the coming letters. They well coped with this hard work.
We will address Wikipedia. Dry statistics: officially pioneers - heroes are called 56 people (the incomplete list). Among them the highest rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union four were posthumously awarded: Valya Kotik, Zina Portnova, Lyonya Golikov, Marat Kazey. These names are well-known to people of the senior generation. To the died heroes, except Lyonya of Golikov, was for only 13 - 14 years. Tens of thousands of children were awarded by awards and medals for various services in battle.
It is known that on average the child begins to realize himself as the personality from 3 - 4 years. From this age and for the rest of life the first bright memories of world around remain. Therefore there is a special wish to stop on a time span of dates of birth: approximately from 1938 to 1942 . The children who were born in this period came to understanding of the place in the world already during war. The peace time did not enter their personal experience. Such experience could appear at them only after the Victory. But it was necessary to live up to it still. And not all managed it.
These children were not heroes, but the most touching memories of war at this generation. Especially for this article the colleague from the Polotsk university shared with me the very first vital impressions connected with war. Her story seemed to me, there will be interesting not only for her family, but also for readers “Shkolyzhizni. ru“.
She was born in premilitary 1938 in the city of Dirt of the Voronezh region (nowadays Lipetsk region). Small this town had an important strategic importance for the railroads of the USSR. It is located on a branch Moscow - Voronezh, and trains left further Dirt in three directions: to Stalingrad, Voronezh and the Eagle.
The house in which then there lived little Rimma was in the suburb of. Dirt in the village B. Samovets on the bank of the small river of the same name flowing into the river to Matyr. The front in 1942 was from the city kilometers in hundred, and maybe it is less.
Now imagine the little three-year-old defenseless little girl. Her very first reminiscence of life: mother in hospital, far, in Lipetsk, Rimma together with the elder brother lives at the grandmother in B. Samovtsa. Huge vyotla under which antiaircraft guns hid grew in the village. The house where she lived, was in only 100 m from the antiaircraft battery.
During night aviation raids Germans dropped lighting bombs. They long hung in the sky over the heads. Their bright bluish cold light filled in all vicinities. Was light-as in the afternoon. Lighting was necessary for Germans for aim bombing. And the railway bridge through the river to Matyr which is cutting off at once three directions of train service was a main goal for Germans, of course was basic of which Stalingrad.
The first experiences of the little girl are connected with protection of the strategic bridge. She already well knew: if in the sky bright light appeared, firing of antiaircraft guns, a roar of the German bombers and remote explosions of bombs right there will begin.
Little Rimma together with the grandmother, the brother and other children - cousin relatives went outside, in bird cherry bushes, spread deryuzhka and laid down on them. Rimma kneelt, all contracted and having hung the head down, covered it with hands, testing the real horror from noise and light. She tests echoes of this horror and today when she tells about that time.
One afternoon during a raid the German plane was lined with the antiaircraft gun and the pilot managed to put the damaged plane on a kolkhoz field. Rimma remembers how all ran to look at this plunged fascist who all some minutes ago dominated in the sky. The girl ran together with all and now remembers how the crowd of children and adults silently surrounded the enemy pilot. He was not beaten, did not try to tear to pieces him. All only wanted to understand: what it? Why it came to them with war?
Rimma those years was very frail child. She was the smallest of all the peers. Shortage of food and other deprivations led to the fact that late fall 1942 - go she together with the brother got sick with scarlet fever. The girl survived, and lost the brother.
Still reminiscence. There was a constant feeling of hunger. Having so felt hungry! Till fall after harvesting from a kolkhoz field the grandmother sewed all sacks for collecting cones. Children barefoot went on an eddish, ranya to blood the legs, collected single untidy by the combine cones. Malyshnya felt constant fear because the horse horse trainer often appeared and a whip banished defenseless children from the field. It was infinitely offensive. And it repeated every fall.
Rimma had a chronic pneumonia, she often caught a cold. It is not surprising that over time it developed dystrophy. Treatment did not help. At last the children`s district doctor of Rimma made the decision that only the sanatorium can rescue the girl. She still remembers a surname of the doctor - Kovalyov. And here in January, 1945 - go it is sent to regional children`s sanatorium on whole by half a year.
Near Voronezh the railway Count station, nearby an ancient former count manor is located, in it and the children`s sanatorium on 150 - 200 children was located. Around ship pines. The place is the most beautiful! From the very first days the personnel of sanatorium paid again arrived special attention. Little Rimma saw many products for the first time in the life.
Especially weakened children were fed up black sturgeon caviar . Rimma should be convinced still that it is not cod-liver oil which she hated. And so gradually - gradually she understood that sandwich from black bread with caviar - it is tasty!
She ate the majority of dishes for the first time in the life. It were also fine omelets from the American egg powder, and the first meat cutlet , and the first meatballs . And still she remembers tasty kiselny soup from dried fruits. Cherry, raisin, apples, pears were a part. To soup for about lshy caloric content would be added by fig.
She well remembers on May 9, 1945. In honor of the Victory to children baked cake Napoleon (the word remembered forever even without knowing that it means). It was prepared from good flour, and layers were soaked with the American condensed milk. It was the first in her life cake. And how many time she ate cake Napoleon, that victorious was the most tasty!
In fights with Germans in the sky over. Dirt many Soviet pilots died, from them of nineteen gave the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union. It means that air battles were really the most severe. But protection in the form of aircraft and antiaircraft protecting batteries stood. Preserved the strategic bridge from destruction. What became an additional contribution to a victory in the well-known battle near Stalingrad.
Today Rimma Mikhaylovna Larina is 72 years old. It, despite age “sores“, remains the active and cheerful person. Still works as the associate professor of the Polotsk university. She writes remarkable verses, keeps the diary. Not at any young so much human enthusiasm.
Give God to all to the children of war of many years of full-fledged life, health, love and respect of people around living among us! Communicate with them, there is a lot more them among us. They the last of us who can share personal reminiscence about that awful war.