Rus Articles Journal

May, 1945. Why the Red Army had to conduct battles with fascists after the Victory?

in Reims under the leadership of the commander of forwarding forces of allies in Europe general D. Eisenhower were organized on May 7 signing of the act of capitulation of Germany which came into force with 23. 01 hours on May 8. On behalf of the German government headed at that time gross - the admiral Dyonits, the act was signed by the general Alfred Yodl. Its attempts to delay signing of the act till May 10 to give the chance to the maximum number of fascist troops to recede on the territory controlled by Americans, were not crowned with success.

From Dyonits`s rate information on capitulation was quickly brought to the main groups of the German troops continuing to show resistance to Red Army and forwarding forces of allies. Many connections of Wehrmacht began to lay down arms. But part of groups, including groups of Centre armies (under command the general - the field marshal Ferdinand Sherner) and “Austria“ (under command the general - the colonel Lothar Rendulitsch), and also part of troops of group of armies “E“ (under command the general - the colonel of Luftwaffe Alexander Lyor) refused to execute Dyonits`s instructions, trying to break through to allies not to be given in captivity to the Soviet troops.

Especially difficult situation developed in Czechoslovakia where divisions of group of Centre armies and part of forces of groups of Austria armies showed fierce resistance to the coming Soviet troops. The risen Prague which most part Sherner`s troops took fell into an emergency, having cruelly suppressed resistance of the Czech patriots.

In the afternoon on May 7 Churchill and Truman informed Stalin that next day are going to declare signing of the act of capitulation of Germany and completion of war. In the response message Stalin reasonably noted that on considerable part sovetsko - the German front cruel fights therefore the announcement of capitulation should be postponed until its real entry into force at 23 o`clock on May 8 continue. At the same time he suggested heads of allied powers to organize new signing of the Act of unconditional surrender of Germany “in Berlin, and not unilaterally, and obligatory the Supreme command of all countries of the anti-Hitlerite coalition“.

By the time of signing of the new act of capitulation the large centers of resistance of Hitlerites remained only in the territory of Czechoslovakia and Hugo - the West of Germany where heavy fights continued. Less considerable points of resistance where did not start capitulation yet, remained in Austria, in the north and North - the East of Germany, in Baltic, Denmark.

The act of capitulation provided that “The German Supreme Command will immediately issue orders all German commander of ground, naval and air forces and to all forces which are under the German command to stop military operations at 23 - 01 o`clock on the Central European time 8 - go May, 1945, to remain on the places where they are at this time and to disarm completely, having transferred all their weapon and military property to the local allied commanders or officers allocated with representatives of Allied Supreme command“.

At the same time, in the act it was accurately formulated that “in case the German Supreme Command or any armed forces which are under its command do not work according to this act of capitulation, the Supreme Command of Red Army, and also the Supreme Command of Allied forwarding forces will take such punitive measures or other actions which they will consider necessary“.

And similar measures the Red Army was forced to undertake on a number of the directions. The fact that not all troops carry out the decision on capitulation, recognized also in Dyonits`s rate. On May 9 here the official statement in connection with capitulation in which it was said was published that “on Hugo - East and East fronts all staffs of the main connections up to Dresden received the order to cease fire“. But it was noted that “revolt of Czechs almost in all Bohemia and Moravia managed to interfere with performance of terms of surrender and our communications in this area. The general headquarters staff still did not receive data on groups of armies of Lyor, Rendulitsch and Sherner yet“.

In a rate of the German command frankly dissembled, communication with the “rebellious“ groups of armies which refused to capitulate to the Soviet troops was steady, but Dyonits secretly supported their decision to make the way to Americans there to be given in captivity.

On May 9 when in the Soviet Union with triumph celebrated the Victory over fascist Germany (the USA and England declared it still on May 8), troops 1 - go, 2 - go and 4 - go the Ukrainian fronts continued to dissect and surround the German troops on Hugo - the West of Germany and in Czechoslovakia. In the morning on May 9 tanks of the advanced parts 1 - go the Ukrainian front, and army 2 - go rushed into Prague and 4 - go fronts connected, having closed considerable part of the German group in an environment ring. To Americans only several divisions managed with fights to break from group of Austria armies.

On May 10 large fights on this direction began to fade, most of the surrounded Hitlerites, having understood hopelessness of continuation of fight, began to lay down arms. Next day the main forces of the German group in Czechoslovakia stopped resistance, and troops 1 - go the Ukrainian front made contact with 3 - y the American army. But voluntarily not everyone gave up, separate parts and divisions of the German troops with fights tried to make the way to Americans to the twentieth of May.

On other directions military operations ended earlier. On May 9 the German troops near Gdynia and Danzig laid down arms, the task force “Narvik“ in Norway capitulated. The large garrison on the spit Puttsiger - Nerung (To the east of Danzig) capitulated to the Soviet troops on May 10, the remains of parts in Kurland and on the Danish island of Bornholm laid down arms next day.

To the middle of May fights practically stopped. There were still small separate groups of soldiers and opponent`s officers in whose elimination special divisions, as a rule, were engaged. After on May 13 reported on Stalin that all large groups of the opponent capitulated, the decision on carrying out Victory Day parade was made. In total - go from May 9 to May 14 the Soviet troops disarmed and took prisoner more than 1 million 230 thousand servicemen of the opponent, including 101 generals. Sovinformburo could declare only on May 15 the end of organized reception of prisoners in a zone of the Soviet occupation.

The war which brought to the people of many countries incalculable disasters ended. Someone ahead still was waited by war with Japan, though transient, but from it not less bloody. For most of soldiers ahead there was a demobilization and peaceful life of which they dreamed between fights, for the sake of which on fields of battles their companions perished.