Volokolamsk. How “The city of military glory“ was at war?
our memory sometimes reminds a mass grave: it is the general memory, we remember it, but who and why it is concrete in it we - often just do not want to remember.
And still there is a wish to hope that memory of the last, for the present to the most terrible war in the history of mankind, will remain our general memory. What unites all of us what now happened to us as if we to each other belonged. It is the general memory of Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles, Jews, Tatars, French and Americans and Germans, Italians, Japanese - in general all. It is memory of all mankind, and the signature stamp on it costs: “to store such memory eternally“.
Our state (not the country, namely the state - the Russian Federation) - is slow. It knows that it always and under any circumstances will be protected, at the same time on a droplet gives honors to those who deserved them in fights. Even if these honors have no very big material component.
of “People without surname“
On a habit of the correspondent I took out a notebook.
- Forgive how your surname is written?
- I have no surname.
I was surprised. He told what in translation on the Russian Momysh - Ullah is meant by the son Momysha.
- This my middle name, - it continued. - Baurdzhan - a name. And there is no surname.
(A. Beck. “Volokolamskoye Highway“).
Bauyrzhan Momysh - ula - one of heroes of grandiose fight for Moscow. A sort the Kazakh, the professional military (then - and the writer), became famous not just for heroism, but is very sensible and in a military way competently carried out fights. He had to be entitled the Hero of the Soviet Union in 1942 when he and to it was presented. However received only in half a century, posthumously … It is unclear - why especially as did not die, lived long life and it was known.
Bauyrzhan Momysh - ula - the Person “without surname“ - one of the main characters of the book of Alexander Beck “Volokolamskoye Highway“ . This book, speak, study still in military academies of the whole world.
The city of Volokolamsk in which neighborhood the most severe fights were developed (and still there many mass graves) only this year was entitled “The city of military glory“.
the City with a name
Volokolamsk is more senior than Moscow, however, everything for several years (it is dated 1135). According to the name of the city clearly what important role it played in the earliest times: before court it was necessary to drag by land - from the river to the river, dragging, “dragging“. One Novgorod dragged between the Baltic and Volga basins remained in the name of Vyshny Volochyok, another - was Dragged by Lamsky, remained in the name of Volokolamsk. And in general, it was the most usual world practice - to drag unreasonable freight on the ground.
Such important trade way could not be left without attempts to appropriate it or to ruin. Owing to what Lamsky Dragged it was ruined and burned as the (the Vladimir, Tver princes), and alien (Batyem, the khan Dyudenem).
This city in 120 kilometers from Moscow all built up, handed over, was even divided (into two half - between Novgorod and Kiev), at the same time managed to beat off external enemies (heroically beat off the Lithuanian prince Olgerd, Tokhtamysh`s troops). But then especially ranks were not distributed though it was necessary to do some fighting further strong: already at the time of the Distemper beat off the king Sigismund.
It is quite common story of the city situated near Moscow. The small city with the unique sights - the Kremlin, Voskresensky and Nikolsky cathedrals (the last is constructed as a monument to the dead in the Crimean war), churches.
Nearby - the acting Iosifo - the Volotsky monastery with the most interesting history (Maximus the Greek, the tsar Vasily Shuysky were ground there), Malyuta Skuratov and the mother-in-law A. Pushkina (Natalya Ivanovna Goncharova) are buried there. After revolution in the monastery there was an orphanage, during war in it there were at first parts of Red Army, then the German troops which long from there beat out.
Trying to speak slowly and very distinctly, Bozzhanov began to ask on plans of the German command. The prisoner understood not at once. Having caught at last sense of a question, he told, distorting the Russian names:
- To have breakfast - Volyokolyamsk, to have supper - Moskau.
(A. Beck. “Volokolamskoye Highway“).
Yes, plans at the German command were quite accurate. In the morning - a breakfast in Volokolamsk, a dinner already in Moscow, and thought that on approaches to Moscow one hastily created division which began to be called then - Panfilovskoy can detain them.
I. V. Panfilov is the commander 316 - y the shooting division glorified by heavy defensive actions on the Volokolamsk direction. And the dead in November, 1941 in the same place, in Volokolamsk district, from splinters of a mortar mine.
Concerning “28 Panfilov`s men“ there are a lot of speculation, perhaps, all this, really, the myth now. But mass heroism of all fighters of this division is not called any in question. And then was not exposed - as soon as this division was not called by Germans, even “wild“.
And without being a military historian, it is easy to guess what the general feat was: at first to constrain an impact of two tank divisions of the opponent, then to stop approach of three divisions!
Let posthumously, in 50 years, but Bauyrzhan Momysh - ula became Hero of the Soviet Union. Though the USSR did not exist any more. Let was late, in 65 years, but the city of Volokolamsk accepted an honorary title of “The city of military glory“. And let now we will think of what unites us, but does not separate. Also unites forever - it is the general memory.