Rus Articles Journal

Gabsburg - “Austria is urged to rule the world“? The beginning of a way

of Gabsburgi - the most known aristocratic family in Germany which played an extremely important role in world history.

For several centuries Gabsburgi from a low-influential count sort turned into the first family of Europe. A secret Gabsburgov - incredibly favorable marriages. Three times men from this sort conducted the first bride of Europe to an altar. Plus, of course, continuous wars for the advantages got in result of these marriages.

Also expression “Austria was born (that is Gabsburgi) are urged to rule the world!“. What history of ascension Gabsburgov to world supremacy? And what led to collapse of great hopes?

The ancestor Gabsburgov - Guntram Bogaty, the count of the lower Alsace, Breysgau and Aargau living in the 10th century though modern researchers also did not find confirmation of its real existence. Natives of Alsace, first Gabsburgi settled in Northern Switzerland. As owners of the valley of the river Aar and the District of Aargau they constructed the patrimonial lock there, by name which they began to be called columns a background Habsburg.

The origin of the name of the lock is treated doubly - or “the hawk lock“, or “the lock at the ford, at a crossing“. Over time counts a background Habsburg became owners of almost all northern Switzerland both very strong and influential family in Hugo - the western Germany.

The columns Albert IV a background - Habsburg (died in 1241) divided patrimonial possession with the brother Rudolf III - so there was the first partition of lands of a sort Gabsburgov (in the next centuries of such sections will be a little). Sources of power of the Habsburg monarchy had Albert IV`s son - the columns Rudolf IV. In its 1273 as a compromise figure princes elected the German king under the name of Rudolf I. During that era the title of the German king and emperor Svyashchenno - the Roman Empire the German nation became unattractive even for his owner, some kind of sinecure of “the president of the German Reich“.

But Rudolf I was the successful owner of new lands. In 1278 he managed to win against the Czech king and became the owner of the duchies of Austria and Shtiriya - the cornerstone in creation of the personal empire Gabsburgov was so put. Excessive strengthening Gabsburgov roused princes to cease to elect representatives of this sort to an imperial throne for a long time.

In turn Gabsburgi annexed Carinthia and Tyrol to the possession. In 1306 for the first time the member of a sort Gabsburgov Rudolf III became the king of Bohemia (Czech Republic), but did not manage to master the rebellious Czech nobility and in a year died.

The duke of Austria, Shtiriya, Carinthia and Tyrol Rudolf IV (1339 - 1365) was the first of Gabsburgov who was born in Vienna and the first Austrian in the sort. It became famous for the following: in 1358 the emperor Charles IV from a sort of Luxembourg, the king of Bohemia, published the so-called “Gold bull“ according to which the emperor was elected now by 7 princes - electors (Electors). The Austrian duke of these electors was not among (irony here that the emperor punished own son-in-law: Rudolf IV in revenge published “Privelegium Maius“ - the collection of skillfully forged decrees of former emperors).

Exactly there the mention of a new title of Rudolph - the archduke contained. The new title put the governor of Austria on a step, the second after the emperor, in hierarchy of the German governors. The emperor Charles IV was hostile to Rudolf IV`s trick extremely, he even on some forced the duke not to use the title “archduke“, he in every possible way helped Rudolph`s enemies, set against it Swisses dissatisfied with his board, but eventually the emperor capitulated.

Rudolph became famous also for the fact that signed with the younger brothers documents where they agreed that Austria was transferred to all sons of the duke as inseparable possession, this rule received the name “Rudolfova Governed“, so the duke Rudolf IV the first of Gabsburgov tried to keep patrimonial possession from crushing, so to fix the provision of a sort reached with such work Gabsburgov in Europe!

However after death of the duke - the falsifier of papers it became clear that he worked all the life absolutely in vain: in 1379 younger brothers of the died Rudolf IV very quietly divided Austria: Albert III became a duke actually to Austria, and Leopold III - Shtiriya`s duke, Carinthia and Tyrol, this section is known as the partition into albertinsky and leopoldinsky lines Gabsburgov.

As a result of it, as well as Rudolf IV was afraid, influence Gabsburgov collapsed.