What is done in St. Petersburg a cat by Eliseus and Vasilis`s cat?
On a facade of Eliseevsky shop the cat Eliseus lodged on January 25, 2000. Bronze and solid. Sits, having pricked up ears, attentively considers the street. And opposite, on a facade of the house No. 3 down the street Small Garden, since April 1, 2000 Vasilis`s cat lives. Too bronze. It as the real cat, admires not so much the street, how many herself, beautiful.
To cats throw coins - in St. Petersburg the belief already managed to extend that it is worth throwing so far a coin to a cat`s pedestal so that it remained there, it is possible to consider that caught good luck for a tail - madam Fortuna will surely face.
About why in St. Petersburg such extraordinary monuments are established, there are several versions. The first, the most boring, says that cats were required for registration of Malaya Sadovaya Street when it was transformed to the pedestrian zone. That there was on what an eye to stop.
The second - is slightly more interesting. In total - cats - companions of the person from time immemorial. Here also put monuments to these satellites. To immortalize their lawful place near the person. And as cats walk in itself - it is known to all! - they were also lifted over the street. That bronze animals watched the citizens fussing below - just as the real cats.
But the most interesting version third. And here is how to whom, and personally it where as is closer to me to heart, than banal registration of the street or a monument to a pet. According to the third version Eliseus and Vasilisa are generalized characters of those Yaroslavl cats who were delivered to Leningrad in 1943.
All know about the Siege of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War. On September 8 uncoordinated actions of command led to the fact that the city was taken in a ring. Attempts of break of a blockade ring began only in two weeks - when the enemy army already managed to be dug round thoroughly at busy boundaries, to build the echeloned defense. And again inconsistency of actions of armies, and a ring remained closed, even still the touch contracted.
But the speech not about strategy and tactics of conducting military operations. Eventually, it was 1941, the Red Army had no experience of similar war, her many commanders preferred a cavalry to tanks. And it was opposed by the enemy who passed all Europe and not knowing defeats anywhere. The same commanders who became “commanders of the Victory“ subsequently were just recruited knowledge of methods and ways of conducting modern war.
However, from all this it was not easier for Leningrad. In the first of September, 1941 in the city there was enough food to support not only own population, but also refugees from the neighboring areas. But the next incompetence - and from Badayevsky warehouses there were only smoking funnels. Everything is fine, bombardments and shellings for the besieged city - the phenomenon almost ordinary. And here the fact that all stocks of the food were concentrated in one place that them was not distributed on different warehouses, not transferred to the underground storages inaccessible to any bombs and shells, - it is unambiguous incompetence manifestation. And if on justice, then companion Zhdanov has to be shot under war laws - for malicious wrecking. But besides, it is other history.
The result of loss of Badayevsky warehouses was catastrophic for the city. Practically at once hunger began. There was not enough put ration. And it was difficult to call it the balanced food. Ate everything that though bore a faint resemblance to food.
Yes, we will not hide: these days
we elizemlyu, glue, belts;
but, having eaten soup from belts,
rose to the machine the stubborn master,
to sharpen tools of part,
necessary for war.
(Olga Berggolts, “A voice of besieged Leningrad“) that who got belt soup or turned out that in the neighboring apartment wall-paper glued flour glue still was lucky
Ate both dogs, and cats. Sometimes, that ate not only pets. The people going crazy for hunger reached also tombless corpses - blockade winter when heating did not work, and frosts were surprisingly cruel (the general Guderian near Moscow that winter found out on the thermometer - 55 °C what he immediately reported to Berlin about), buried not all dead. And forces for this purpose were not.
The city died. Yes, pipes of Putilovsky plant smoked, madly irritating besieging - at this plant made those shells which helped to constrain a blockade ring. Yes, radio of Leningrad transferred joyful, bravura music - and one of the German soldiers, having heard the vigorous song, wrote down in the diary: “I am afraid of them. All of us will die here!“. But on streets fell from exhaustion, and the corpses lying in snowdrifts did not cause in anybody not only fear any more, but even surprise.
When people die, there comes the rat kingdom. It is some law of the nature. Rats feel low, they become impudent, gather packs, attack. Rats in the besieged Leningrad became the real disaster. They - that had enough food. Tombless corpses - than not food for rats. And pack it is possible to attack also on live, weakened by hunger.
Rats propagated and bred on ruins of the besieged city. Long ago it is noticed that people by and large are not able to battle against rats. To poison several rats who were got in the cellar it is one, and here to get rid of the whole rat army … The survived people were threatened by epidemics. For cleaning of corpses community work days were appointed. For example, on March 8 it was declared in the female afternoon, and all women who had enough forces took to the city streets to sort blockages and to clean corpses. But could not relieve either community work days, or tanks of rats. And rats are not only deathbirds, it is potential epidemics.
Near the person there was always an animal who protected him from rat invasion.
At a mouse hole
Lie kryuchya are sharp.
I hung, a grief,
Two green lamps.
But the Leningrad cats was eaten even at the very beginning of blockade. What to tell about 1943. It is unlikely by the time of break of blockade in the city there was at least one cat. But rats there was a set. And then the Leningrad Soviet decided to deliver cats to Leningrad.
The first cat`s mobilization took place in Yaroslavl. Smoky and striped, red and black - they were carried in cars, and Leningrad residents waited for cats as rescue. The one who got a cat, considered himself as the lucky. And if the cat still brought kittens - it was just a miracle. In Leningrad of 1943 paid 500 rubles for a kitten (for comparison: the watchman`s salary - 120 rub, kilogram of bread from hands - 50 rub) .
The Yaroslavl cats adequately met the enemy and could fight back him. Rats ceased, but it was not possible to get rid of them. Just there were not enough cats. And to the end of war to Leningrad there arrived 5 thousand more cats - this time from Siberia (not without reason then in St. Petersburg the Nevsky maskaradny cat was brought on the basis of Siberians - there was enough genetic material).
It is interesting that in the winter of 1941 near Moscow troops were replenished with the Siberians accustomed to cold weather too. And in Leningrad Siberians - the truth, already four-leg, - did not bring. “Our right cause! The enemy will be broken, the victory will be for us!“, - the cats who are brought together in Leningrad declared. Also cleared the city of rats.
Someone claims that it is a legend - a pier, there are no documentary confirmations to the fact that cats were delivered to Leningrad. Someone reasonably objects: and from where then after blockade in the city there were cats, they were eaten! And someone just trusts: yes, all truth; yes, cats in Leningrad really battled against rats and won!
And here they, Vasilisa and Eliseus, watch St. Petersburg from the pedestals. Always on guards. The enemy will not pass.