How to develop abstract thinking at the child?
That such abstract thinking and why it is necessary? “The explanatory dictionary of Russian“ (under the editorship of D. N. Ushakov) claims that in scientific concept the abstraction is a mental separation of some properties and signs of a subject from the subject. You remember the movie “Chapayev“: where there has to be a commander during attack? The potatoes which are spread out on a table symbolize a disposition. They are not similar to the commander going to attack, or army at all, but nevertheless safely cope with the task - symbolize properties and signs of certain objects.
A subject and symbols, it designating or defining, an essence different things, and nevertheless when you hear the word “cow“, you represent large, horned, artiodactyl, “milk-containing“ animal, but not gray, striped, sharp-clawed, mewing. The abstract thinking is inseparable from mathematicians and physicists, poets and writers, musicians and composers. Any creativity demands abstract thinking, that is - manipulations with symbols. And if you want to develop creative abilities at the child, then it is necessary to begin with development of abstract thinking.
Some are inclined to consider that the abstract thinking is similar to ear for music: it or is, or not. Congenital gift. And its development is almost impossible as it is impossible to become the composer to the one who is deprived of ear for music. As a last resort persistent exercises for development of abstract thinking can yield some temporary result, but it is worth stopping them as everything right there falls back into place.
But here what piece: it appears, all children are born with fine ear for music. And if at the five-year-old child his absence is revealed, then not the bear to it at the birth stepped on an ear, and all five years of his life musical development occurred in the opposite direction: from excellent ear for music to “bear“. And if to concentrate practically right after the child`s birth on development of its musical abilities, then by five years it will be potential Shalyapin or Caruso.
So the abstract thinking can be developed, its germs are available for each child, and - absolutely viable. But they - as plants. Without due leaving will just wither. And everyone knows that if the plant completely dried, then no watering and leaving will yield result any more.
The elementary game developing abstract thinking - what the cloud is similar to. Clouds, for luck, are absolutely available and free. Also offer a set of various pictures, without demanding any efforts (well unless to raise the head). The cloud can be similar to a dragon, the knight, the lock, puffs, a piece of cotton candy, a flower … Forms infinite set. Examining clouds from the point of view of symbols and manipulation with them, but not from the point of view of meteorology (it seems, the rain gathers!) the child develops abstract thinking.
By the way, Winnie`s dialogue - Down and Piglet from the Soviet animated film is a striking example of abstract thinking too. The magnificent logical chain of symbols was offered bees: “cloudlet“ in the person of Winnie - Down, an umbrella at Piglet moreover and the corresponding statements (“I am a cloudlet, a cloudlet, a cloudlet, and at all not the bear …“, “Seems, the rain gathers!“). Here only trouble - bees refused to think of symbols, and preferred them a reality. But it is already other history.
There is a game which practically never bothers children, and the abstract thinking at the same time develops perfectly: shadow play. What is a shadow as not the most real abstraction? It not a subject, but only its symbol. But it is possible to play with this symbol, unlike clouds - it is only possible to watch them.
Everything that is required for such game: lamp, sheet and set of cardboard figures. It is possible to make figures independently, it is not too difficult.
Various plays of shadows are played. Any children`s fairy tale is the ready scenario demanding only “actors“. At the same time “actors“ can be multidimensional. The bear from the fairy tale about Masha and three bears will perfectly cope with a role in the tale of Teremka. Itself teremok will perfectly represent an izba in any other fairy tale. The wolf is an and Little Red Riding Hood, both Seven Kids, and a dog in “Turnip“.
One more interesting exercise - shadows on a wall. A symbol and what it symbolizes. The shadow cast by hands accepts outlines absolutely of other objects. The child sees not hands, and the flying bird, the barking dog, a hare any more and so on.
Such shadow “theater“ can be continued also on the street. What shadow will turn out if to raise hands over the head? How to make a shadow - a hare? A shadow - a tree? Chinese pagoda?
Offer the child of abstraction, suggest him to create abstractions. Play with clouds and shadows. Perhaps, at you future Pushkin grows. Or Lobachevsky. Help it to grow up.