Lighting of streets. How to light lamps in villages?
Countrymen and summer residents quite often ask questions of norms of street lighting. And not only regarding a color range and luminous intensity of street lamps, but also it is global: whether streets in villages have to be lit and if yes, that is as well as how many (on time)? Quite often columns and lamps on streets are present at villages, remote from the regional centers, and lamps do not burn …
Normative documents “CONSTRUCTION NORMS AND REGULATIONS 23 - 05 - 95. Natural and artificial lighting“ and other standards regulate norms of street lighting. There are less famous documents giving concept about what has to be illumination level. In the Russian Federation the Federal Law No. 131 - Federal Law from 6 works. 10. 2003 (in an edition 21. 07. 2007) “About the general principles of the organization of local government in the Russian Federation“, regulating responsibility of the power for street lighting in the territory of municipality.
The values of illumination recommended by norms are operational sizes below which illumination should not be at any moment of operation. If from - for pollution of lamps, lamps or recession of a light stream of lamps these minimum admissible values are reached, then units of street lighting needs service (cleaning).
Who has to carry out procedural service? What document to use? About it further.
The principle of the organization of street lighting in the cities and rural settlements different therefore to hang up a lamp on each column along the rural street it is technically impracticable. Shortage of money in the budget of the rural settlement is also actual for the organization of the greatest possible street lighting which is annually developed by administration and is accepted by local deputies of the rural settlement (the social activists who are not getting paid).
Financing of rural settlements goes not through administration of the area and even area, and directly from the Federal budget. There are acts regulating financing by means of the interbudgetary transfers. Therefore at administrations of rural settlements it is banal there is no “osoblivy“ desire to try to obtain money for lighting of streets... However, as well as on maintenance of local roads, planked footway and dumps, other local infrastructure, gardening of the territory and on the solution of many other problematic issues which are in competence of municipal administration.
In Russia appeal to the Federal Law No. 131 - Federal Law “About the General Principles of the Organization of Local Government in the Russian Federation“, and in it - to article 14, point 1. 21 “Organization of lighting of streets and installation of indexes with names of streets and numbers of houses“. And, in the same act it is registered and a lot of useful about other spheres of life of peasants, in particular, about export of household waste and fire safety, - all this in a zone of responsibility of local municipality .
The regional division of power sale only technically provides lighting of streets for which either the administration of the rural settlement, or the organization on which balance there is an engineering system of the village has to pay. Depends on them whether in the village light how many lamps will light the street (many here and one Trimmed Lamp for years will burn dream to see) and in what time.
For street lighting in the village there is a social standard . It is provided by it that not less than 80% of streets in the village have to be lit. In reality it is very difficult to deal with this condition: for example, how to define the number of persons in need according to streets in a small village, once densely populated and extended on kilometers, where now there were 2 - 3 separately located lodges?
Therefore experts agreed that for remote villages (farms) existence of two streetlights is considered minimum: on entrance and on departure from the village. Other rules work in big villages: obligatory lighting has to be established near school, hospital (feldshersko - obstetric point), recreation centers, libraries and, perhaps, other socially important objects.
During crisis to the forefront there is a vital issue of service. Obviously to get a new lamp instead of old - not a problem. The most part of expenses leaves on that for several tens kilometers there arrived the crew and replaced this lamp. For economy of budgetary funds in practice the contract for service of street lighting can be signed not only with structural divisions of power sale, but also with the local electrician - it will be able quite to twist a lamp in a lamp, and more difficult repair work will be carried out (much more rare) by electricians from the area. Repair of street lighting has to be made within 5 - 15 days from the date of application.
Happens and so that the infrastructure of the settlement is on balance of some enterprise which has neither means, nor opportunities for normal service of subordinated power supply networks. Not all, but many villages got a situation in inheritance from … reforms of Agricultural industry of Russia 1993 - 1994. Huge money then was released on motivation of peasants to personal managing, an institution of farms - on memoirs of old residents, the power directly loaded with presents them the interest-free credits. Then country farms with huge territories of pastures, and on them and with the infrastructure which is partially electrified were formed. Soon financial donorship stopped, and peasants remained with the problems alone. Perhaps and therefore too they do not trust in anything, in particular to authorities, deception happened decades.
In such territories all issues are resolved between inhabitants and the farmer (the owner or the tenant) without any intervention from outside. That in such situation to transfer power networks to fixed assets of municipality (something is similar to deprivatization), it is necessary to pass several circles of bureaucratic hell. And that this is possible only after reduction of a power supply system (long time being considered - the fact ownerless) in a full order.
Lamp service life in the rural lamp of street lighting makes about 1,5 years at observance of average service conditions: 12 hours it is included, 12 hours - it is switched off. As from the middle of March on the middle of September in geographical conditions of the Vologda region it is required to include lamps of street lighting in the period less than for 6 hours, and in the summer (including the period of “white nights“) - at all not to include, the real term of service of some copies of metalhalogen lamps reaches 3 - 4 years. For automation of turning on of street lamps in rural areas establish a timer and the photorelay.
Has to notice that in one and a half years spent in the Vologda village I learned much including to how it is necessary “to light lamps in villages“. Do not hesitate to demand implementation of the law from municipal authorities. In - the first because the citizen living in the village has the right to it (officials work for us, and not vice versa); in - the second because worse will not be any more.
“even do not shoot for legal requirements“ so - there is nothing to be afraid. Having seen before itself the person competent and adequate, the municipality will meet also your requirements. Be more courageous regarding legitimate rights.