Armenia: what is known of it beyond its limits? About everything gradually
the Karabakh conflict, cognac, Ottoman genocide - the associations arising at the average resident of Russia at the word “Armenia“. Mentions of genocide flash in mass media even more often, 95 years - bitter anniversary. But what we actually know about the country and the people which representatives live near us already one thousand years?
According to reference books, Armenia - the state in Transcaucasia, 141 in the territory size (about 30 thousand sq.km), with the population a little more than three million people. The highland, has no outlet to the sea, the presidential republic, the capital - Yerevan. Positions itself as the tourist center, however Americans and Turks visit her generally. And for Ukrainians and Russians, despite belonging to the general former Soviet Union - a Terra incognito.
Money in Armenia are called very poetically - dramas. One dollar is slightly less than four hundred dramas (or dram as it is pleasant to you more). An average salary - 100 thousand dramas, or about 250 dollars, the minimum pension - 25 thousand. The prices are quite comparable to the Russian.
of Sightthe Capital of Armenia is based by
in the eighth century B.C. - it is nearly thirty years more senior than Rome. By all means will remind you of it. Erevani`s age - a subject of national pride. It is no wonder that in Yerevan, as well as in its vicinities, a set of sights. For every taste.
Behind antiquity it is possible to go to Garni (30 km from the capital), behind the Middle Ages - to cave Geghard Monastery (13th century) the Muslim culture is presented by the Turkish fortresses and mosques. The residence of the head of the Armenian church - the Catholicos - Echmiadzin, too near the capital, and unique churches and monasteries - nearly in each settlement.
The modern architecture and art is widely presented unless in the capital. And the first of sights - the huge singing fountain on the area of the Republic. The area is adjoined by the small boulevard where in 1968 2750 small fountainlets symbolizing age of the city of Yerevan were established.
In Armenia there is also the biggest lake of the Caucasus - Sevan. It is located at the height of 2000 meters and occupies the space of 1240 sq.km. Water lazurno - blue, depth to 100 m
the WordFor the first time the words “Armenia“ and “Armenians“ are mentioned by
in the Persian and Greek sources of the 5th century B.C. Armenians call themselves “find fault“, and the country of Hayastan.
As ethnos Armenians were created approximately in the 6th century B.C. when the Indo-European tribes which came from the Balkan Peninsula mixed up with residents of the ancient state of Urartu. The Armenian statehood reached the greatest blossoming in the 1st century B.C. - at Tigran Veliky. Its empire stretched from Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea.
The Armenian independence lasted till 1375 until the Egyptian Mamelukes headed by the sultan Shaban finally destroyed it. The last tsar, Levon VI, having released from the Egyptian captivity, went to Paris where he died. The period of a bezgosudarstvennost lasted till 1918.
The Independence Day in Armenia is celebrated on September 21.
Armenian, as well as Russian, belongs to an Indo-European family therefore we though far, but all - relatives. Armenians as Germans or Czechs, very much do not love loans therefore in the Armenian very few foreign words. For designation of new realities use the existing language resources. For example, the constitution on - Armenian - sakhmanadrutsyun, and the photo - lusankar.
Writingthe Armenian Kirill`s
- Mefodiy called Mesrop Mashtots. 36 alphabet letters, not similar to anything, he thought up in 396 that laymen could read the bible in language clear to them. Linguists call the Armenian alphabet one of three most perfect in the world (along with Georgian and Korean). Even the unique monument is established to it - two-meter letters settled down near Mount Aragats.
In honor of Mesrop Mashtots, and also other cultural figures of early Christian Armenia during the period from October 3 to November 7 (this year - 9. 10) the Day of the translator - Tarkmanchats is celebrated.
Armenians are Christians, and the Christianity became the state religion long ago - in 301. The Armenian church is much more ancient and significantly differs in dogmatics and ceremonies, both from Catholicism, and from Orthodoxy.
In comparison with Orthodoxy, the Armenian Christianity more secular. Priests do not defy the status, honoring of icons and relics is not widespread though directly and it is not forbidden (Noah`s Ark fragment, for example, is stored in Echmiadzin), in elections of the head of church - the Catholicos, take part as well as ecclesiastics, and laymen. Armenians are inclined to ecumenism: staying abroad, become parishioners of Orthodox or Catholic churches.
the Calendaris entered by
Since 551 in Armenia own calendar, on it 1459 now. In those far times to count years from Christmas did not guess yet, and nearly in each country there was the principle of chronology. With entry into the Russian Empire Armenians gradually passed to a Gregorian calendar.
Who does not remember classical dialogue from the movie “Mimino“:
- You love dolma? - Frunzik Mkrtchyan`s hero asks. there is no
- Because at you do not know how to cook dolma. Real dolma - ooh!
It appears, dolma is such stuffed cabbage in grape leaves. In Armenia dolma is usually served with matsuny and with pounded garlic. For preparation of dolma meat of three types is used: pork, beef and is a little mutton. Spicy herbs are also obligatory.
The only dish which can be tried only in Armenia - nut jam. Train him from green walnuts, previously soaking them in lime water.
Is the word for the first time the lawyer Raphael Lemkin used, studying prosecutions of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire of 1915.
The term gained the international recognition in 1948 and means destruction of separate groups of people or the whole people for racial, national, religious or ideological motives.
On April 24 in Armenia celebrate the day of memory of the victims of the Turkish repressions.
But not all states recognize events of those of years as genocide. Apparently, not to spoil the relation with Turkey.
One of symbols of Armenia - hachkar (literally a cross - a stone) - the stone stele with the carved image of a cross which is usually established at roads at monasteries, inside and on facades of temples.
All in the territory of Armenia there are several thousands of hachkar, each of which differs in the unique pattern. The word “hach“ meets in a name Khachatur, that is given by a cross (there corresponds Greek Hristofor), and in a surname Khachaturian.
In general Armenians, as well as we, often call children by the bible names. So names Petros and Hovhaness correspond to ours Petra and Ivan. Many Armenian names are a literal translation with Hebrew and Greek. In this sense Armenian Astvatsatur and Russian Bogdan - same, both are a calque with Greek Feodor.
the Armenian diaspora
Emergence of the first Armenian diaspora in the territory of modern Ukraine and Russia belongs to H_ to a century - then there was the Armenian settlement in the territory of modern Feodosiya.
The Kiev chronicles are mentioned that the personal doctor of the prince Vladimir Monomakh was Armenian. Most of all Armenian communities was in the Crimea, and also in the central Ukraine - in Kiev, on the Hem, in Lviv. Most of Armenians were merchants and handicraftsmen. Actively the nobility when east style became fashionable used services of the last. From here the “Persian“ carpets and “Damask“ saddles with the coats of arms Ukrainian and Polish shlyakhtichy conduct the origin.
In the seventeenth century Armenians made 7% of the population of Lviv. The majority of them assimilated with the Polish population with adoption of the union in 1630. And the Armenians living in the Crimea were deported in 1944 along with the Crimean Tatars, Greeks and Bulgarians.
Today the most part of the Armenian diaspora in Russia and Ukraine is made by those who moved after the Karabakh conflict.
Armenians in Russia represent the largest Armenian diaspora in the world. In 2002 the Russian census recorded 1 130 491 Armenians in the country.