Answers to the National Crafts of Russia test of
Before beginning to read article, try to pass a test here.
1. Of what list ornaments “grass“, “gingerbread“ and “êóäðèí“ are characteristic? Allocate to
a list “riding“ (when at first paint over a background, and from above there is silver drawing) and “under a background“ (at first the ornament contour is planned, and then the background is filled with black paint). Besides, there are various types of ornaments:
“gingerbread“ - usually in a cup or a dish a geometrical figure - a square or a rhombus - decorated with a grass, berries, flowers;
“grass“ - a pattern from large and small blades;
“êóäðèí“ - leaves and flowers in the form of gold curls on a red or black background;
Use the master and the simplified ornaments. For example, “specks“ which are put with the stamp which is cut out from mushroom plates - a raincoat, or the fabric piece in a special way curtailed. All products undersign manually, and the list does not repeat anywhere. Whatever expressive was the list while the pattern or a background remain silvery, it is yet not real “Khokhloma“ . (Wikipedia)
2. What products of national trade make of roofing steel? by
To production of zhostovsky trays applies thin roofing steel: sheets stamp, then trays pass rolling for rigidity giving to boards. After that trays ground, grind and several times cover with an oil varnish of usually black color with drying of each layer in the furnace. Then masters paint trays by hand with oil paints without application of cliches and samples, relying on own imagination. (Source)
3. In what settlement entering the list of the historical cities of Russia paint a varnish miniature on a papya - Masha?
the Palekhsky miniature - the national trade which developed in the settlement of Palekh of the Ivanovo region. The varnish miniature is executed by distemper on a papya - Masha. Usually caskets, chests, jugs, brooches, a panel, ashtrays, hairpins for a tie, needle cases etc. of Mstyor`s
- the settlement of city type, the center of the city settlement of Mstyora undersign for Vyaznikovsky district of the Vladimir region of Russia. Mstyora - one of the centers of traditional art crafts, largest in Russia, - a varnish miniature on a papya - Masha, an embroidery and jewelry.
Both Mstyora, and Palekh are included into the list of the historical cities of Russia. (Wikipedia)
4. In what city of Russia there is no center of a kruzhevopleteniye on koklyushka?
the Fedoskinsky miniature - a type of traditional Russian varnish tiny painting by oil paints on a papya - Masha, developed at the end of the 18th century in the village of Fedoskino situated near Moscow. In this city only needlewomen for house needs can spin lace. (Wikipedia)
5. What bone of animals do not use for a carving in Holmogorakh the Arkhangelsk region?
the Holmogorsky carved bone - a carving up to bones, the national art trade created and practiced in the villages of Holmogorsky of municipal district of the Arkhangelsk region. In style of a holmogorsky carving various cultural traditions are crossed: North Russian, tsentralnorussky, Western European (technicians of the Netherlands and German products, drawings of engravings were borrowed) and traditions of indigenous people of the North. The mamontovy or morzhovy bone, or a bone of a livestock can be used (horses, cows). (Wikipedia)
6. For knitting of the Orenburg down scarfs the special down of the Orenburg goats is necessary. What down of an animal the thinnest in the world?
Down of the Orenburg goats - the thinnest in the world: thickness of down of the Orenburg goats - 16 - 18 microns, the Angora goats (mohair) - 22 - 24 microns. Therefore products from the Orenburg down - shawls and spider lines - especially gentle and soft. Severe frosty winters with snow and the Orenburg blizzards - snow-storms, and also features of food of the Orenburg goats - vegetation of mountain steppes of the Urals - here the main reasons why breed of the Orenburg goats has such thin down. At the same time, this down very strong - is stronger than wool. The most surprising that the Orenburg goats get divorced only in the Orenburg region. Attempts of French in the 19th century did not manage to take out the Orenburg goat from the Volga region: the thin down is necessary to goats for preservation of heat, and the soft climate of France did not promote it. The Orenburg goats in France degenerated, having turned into ordinary goats with rough thick down. In the 18-19th centuries France exported tens of thousands of poods of the Orenburg down which was appreciated above Kashmir. Western Europe and now buys the Orenburg down much. (Wikipedia)
7. What toys were produced for a holiday bedlam (svistunye) in Vyatka? with
B 1811 the general - the major Nikolay Zakharovich Hitrovo, the son-in-law of the glorified commander Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov consisting “at the sovereign`s person“ suddenly “was removed to Vyatka“.
In Vyatka fallen into disgrace the general - the major happened to become the witness of surprisingly original, purely local, Vyatka national holiday which was called then bedlam, and later (approximately since 1890) and now - svistuny. Bedlam made very strong impression on it. He vastly wrote about it, as about “the era triumphed every year on city shaft“.
We can learn from this description that in 1811 the holiday bedlam was still divided into two parts not similar at each other. Since morning in a shabby small chapel at city shaft remembered ancestors. And “other part of this memorable day“ was devoted to amusements: “the people gather with small whistles and the whole day whistles, walking down the street“. And “are on sale on those places of a doll from clay, painted with different paints and gilded“.
Such is the earliest (from found still) the certificate of the eyewitness on Dymkovo clay painted toys. (Source)
8. How in a different way call the Valdai hand bell?
of the Bell, perhaps, also poured in the 17th century, but what it is accepted to call Valdai (that is coachman`s) a hand bell, appears not earlier than the II half of the 18th century. Coachman`s hand bells, first of all, were necessary on the main, most brisk road of Russia - Moskovsko - the St. Petersburg path. The center of production them arose in Valdai which is on the middle of this path. Local masters it is published were famous for forge products - in smithies and began to cast the first Valdai hand bells. (Source)
the Valdai hand bell has the classical (“Valdai“) form which is under construction on equal ratios of height of diameter that makes impression of stability. The Valdai hand bell is almost deprived of a decor, it only has an inscription put on the same place on bottom edge of a hand bell. The most known inscriptions on the Valdai hand bells: “Whom I love, and I give that“, “Buy do not stint, go have fun“, “a news give Sdalecha yourself“, “Who will buy a bell, that will be happy“, “Ring, console, hurry up to go“, “Is not present profit, but the glory is good“. The Valdai hand bells cost very much, made them from the most high-grade Ural copper. (Source)
9. Boretsky and mezensky lists - the Russian national art crafts. On what natural material the list is conducted?
the Mezensky list on a tree or a palashchelsky list - type of a list of house utensils - distaffs, ladles, boxes, bratin, developed by the beginning of the 19th century in lower reaches of the Mezen River (Arkhangelsk region). The Boretsky list - the Russian national art trade, a list on a tree. There is since the 18th century with the center in Boroke, on average a watercourse Northern Dvina. (Wikipedia)
10. With what main material cover products of the well-known Rostov enamel?
the Rostov enamel - the Russian national art trade; exists since the 18th century to Rostov (Yaroslavl region). Tiny images are carried out by transparent fire-resistant paints on the copper products enameled (obrazk, with the middle of the 19th century - portraits, landscapes). The Rostov Enamel factory makes jewelry, souvenirs with decorative images of flowers, landscapes. (Wikipedia)
11. What element of periodic system of D. I. Mendeleyev is used for a ceramics list Gzhel?
Gzhel - the name of one of villages - the former volost center which became collective for all the district, a symbol of unique art and national skill.
Gzhel call the highly artistic porcelain products which are let out in these parts painted with cobalt on a white background. (Source)