What do you know about chess? This ancient, but eternally young game...
to This game already almost 2000, and it everything does not grow old. It was played by kings and poets, scientists and writers, aristocrats and commoners. Such famous people as Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Napoleon Bonaparte, Lev Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenev devoted it the free time... You, of course, already guessed: this game - chess.
In small article I, of course, do not set as the purpose to tell about history of chess or, especially, to teach to play. The huge number of books, articles, monographs is devoted to chess. Anyone can find about them the mass of information including on the Internet. I only whenever possible want to awaken in the reader interest (even if you want, curiosity) to chess. And if as a result of reading of this article at least one person becomes interested in this ancient, but ageless game and furthermore he will teach to play chess of the children - I will consider that my objectives are achieved.
So, chess appeared in India nearly 2000 years ago. However, then they were called not chess, and chaturangy, and played them not together, and four together. The sequence of the courses was defined by emission of a playing bone. Generally, it was the game quite far from modern chess. After a chaturang removed to Arabs, they said the name as “øàòðàíäæ“. Shatrandzh to modern chess it was similar already much more: played it together and the courses did in turn, as well as in modern chess. However, figures went in a different way.
Chess got to Europe in the VIII-IX centuries. In the beginning they appeared in Spain, together with the Arab conquerors, and from there quickly extended across all Western Europe. Approximately by the 15th century they got modern look.
It is impossible to tell that distribution of chess on the European continent went freely and smoothly. Game was fiercely opposed by Catholic church, equating chess to alcoholism and gamblings. The cardinal Damiani, for example, called chess game “devil, indecent and obscene“ and in 1061 published a ban on game for representatives of clergy. The abbot Bernard Klervosky in 1128 forbade to play chess to representatives of order of knights templars which patron he was.
Did not lag behind Catholic church and orthodox. In Russia where chess in the X-XI centuries got from Poland (and there, in turn, got from Italy) they were also exposed to desperate attacks of clergy. So, game in chess was forbidden by the decree of 1262 under the threat of excommunication!
And - nevertheless: who now (except, certainly, historians) remembers these decrees, bans, names of the abbots and cardinals publishing them? And chess continues to live and finds everything new and new adherents! In what a secret of such appeal of chess?
There is such famous statement that chess is at the same time art, science and sport. Statement quite hackneyed and banal, however absolutely true. As well as any other art - chess fine means of self-expression. The same as the artist puts the “I“ in pictures, the poet - in verses, the composer - in music, and the chess player puts the personality, the attitude in chess. And analysis of the most beautiful parties is capable to bring to the true fan of chess not smaller esthetic pleasure, than, for example, contemplation of immortal cloths to the fan of painting or listening of the brilliant symphony to the fan of music.
At the same time in chess it is impossible to achieve good results if not to study them. Yes, not to study, namely to study! To study the same as any other science - as mathematics, chemistry, physics... To study persistently and persistently. Because only that who is persistent and persistent chess reveals the secrets! Not to be unfounded, I will provide the statement of one of the best-known chess players of the beginning 20 - go centuries of Akiby Rubenstein. He spoke: “From 365 days in a year 300 days I study chess, 60 days I play them and only 5 days have a rest“.
And, of course, at chess there is a sports element. Chess is a single combat. Let not physical, as, say, boxing or judo, and intellectual, but from it not less rigid. Fight full of dramatic nature - fight of nerves, characters, persons often is behind unit or zero in standings.
So - art, science, sport... People of absolutely different mentalities and characters can find in chess that to them it is close, that side of game which especially attracts them. In a sense chess is a model of life: behavior of the person in life, his mentality and character in many respects define its game style and the relation to chess.
And all - at all the versatility and inexhaustibility chess remains as well simply game. Just pleasant pastime where - nibud on the beach, in park, on a small bench in the yard or - in the last years 15 - already and on the screen of the personal computer. Not all it is allowed to achieve in chess good results, to become the master, or, especially, the grand master. But everyone can derive pleasure from game. Play chess!