Bloody chronicles or What you know about guillotine history?
to me one focus was engraved in the memory. I will not remember any more where and in what telecast I saw it, but focus and really memorable.
Its essence such is. On a scaffold there is a guillotine - a usual guillotine, two meters high, with a heavy slanting edge between wooden crossbeams. To a guillotine support the convict. Here it is put on a scaffold facedown, under a knife. The executioner in a red raincoat with a mask on a face pulls the lever, and the knife with a clang falls by a neck of unfortunate. The head flies to a basket.
The executioner throws off a raincoat, unmasks and... it appears that person who was just conducted on a scaffold! And whose head in a basket? Whose breathless corpse lies on a scaffold? On a scaffold - a dummy, and in a basket - the dummy head! As well as at what moment of the living person managed to change for a doll, we never learn - fakirs reliably keep the secrets!
Yes, now the guillotine can be seen unless in an arsenal of conjurers. Well, in some museum. Or at plants: some machines for cutting of metal work by the principle of a guillotine. And there were times when the guillotine cut not sheet iron, namely the heads. And not fake, but presents! And in a large number! Also these times not so ended long ago... However, about everything one after another.
Contrary to a popular belief, the guillotine for the first time appeared not in France. Also at all not doctor Gilyoten as many think thought up it. Possibly, as well as many well-known inventions, a guillotine - a fruit of collective mind. Such devices were used in the different countries of Europe in the 13th century. In Italy, for example, the car for the cabin of the heads was called “ìàííàéÿ“. In 1268 with its help in Naples Konradin Shvabsky - the last representative of a dynasty Gogenshtaufenov was executed. Later the similar device appeared in Scotland and carried the poetic name “maiden“.
Well, and in France? In France the heads cut in the old manner - a sword. Except a head otrubaniye (it is necessary to notice that only aristocrats were exposed to such “humane“ procedure!) also such types of execution as hanging, a kolesovaniye and burning on a fire practiced. Attempt at the king was punished by quartering. Were so executed Francois Ravaillac in 1610 and Robert Francois Damien in 1757. Quartering in France was made as follows. In the beginning to executed burned the right hand on fire. Then the heated nippers pulled out pieces of flesh from a body and filled in in wounds mix from the melted lead, sulfurs and oils. Then broke off a body the four of horses, and remains burned on a fire.
Isn`t that so, even the description of similar execution is capable to horrify? However, and the “usual“ otrubaniye of the head not always passed smoothly, and sometimes turned into terrible torture. If the sword was badly ground, or the executioner had no due skill, then from the first it was not possible to behead. The case when the executioner could separate the head from a body only with 26 - y attempts is described!
Well, and now it is a high time to tell several words about that in honor of whom the guillotine received the modern name. Doctor Joseph Ignas Guilioten was professor of anatomy, Robespierre and Marat`s friend and the active participant of Great French revolution. Its offer to enter a guillotine as the only way of execution, regardless of the committed crime and the identity of the criminal, was dictated by the most humane reasons. And no wonder: in comparison with such terrible ways of execution as a kolesovaniye, quartering or cutting of the head a saw (there was also it!) the gilyotinirovaniye was represented by something like painless, nearly pleasant procedure! “Executed will not feel anything, except an easy breeze over a neck. It will cut to you the head so quickly that you also will not notice!“ Such words of Gilyoten convinced the Constituent assembly of need of a guillotine as only tool of execution. Gilyoten`s proposal was accepted from the third time.
It is known that good intentions laid out the road to hell. If the cabin of the heads “in the old manner“ demanded very high qualification of the executioner and was business difficult, then the invention of a guillotine put process of an otrubaniye of the heads on the conveyor.
The first “trial“ execution by a guillotine took place on April 25, 1792. Somebody was executed for robbery Jacques Nikola Pelitye. Well, and the era of “revolutionary terror“ - something like the Stalin era in a miniature burst then - and the guillotine began to work smoothly. Happened that for time executed 60 people. Over the country there went mobile guillotines - thus, the revolutionary army pacified vandeyets. How many people of all it was executed by means of a guillotine in the years of terror - difficultly to count: could send to a guillotine in any, most insignificant occasion or suspicion. It was necessary to be influenced by effectiveness of the invention also to figures of Great French revolution - to Danton, Demulin, Robespierre... Gilyoten`s phrase “it will cut to you the head so quickly that you also will not notice!“ it was prophetical.
What was felt by doctor Gilyoten, looking at revelry of revolutionary terror? Whether he felt remorse at the sight of mass executions which tool was its “child“? For certain tested, he in general was an opponent of the death penalty and allowed its application only as a temporary, compulsory measure...
The guillotine in France was abolished only in 1981 - together with abolition of the death penalty. Guillotined was last certain Hamid Dzhandubi - he was executed for murder in 1977. However, history of a guillotine is not settled only by one France. It was applied as the execution tool in Italy (till 1870), in Sweden (the truth, only once - in 1910). The guillotine endured original “Renaissance“ in nazi Germany: from 1933 to 1945 in “The third Reich“ about 40 thousand people were in such a way beheaded. Formally executions on a guillotine were betrayed for criminal offenses, any resistance to the Nazi regime was considered as actually criminal offense...
Strangely enough, after crash of “The third Reich“ the gilyotinirovaniye continued to be applied in GDR. Only in 1966 it was replaced with execution as the only guillotine broke.
Well and in end. Turgenev has very curious story “Tropman`s Execution“ where execution on a guillotine is described. Esteem - you will not regret!