What does Austria attract tourists with? The city - the museum Salzburg
Salzburg by right is considered one of the most beautiful cities of Europe. In old part of the city which is surrounded by mountains with fortresses and monasteries history comes to life literally continually. Salzburg is small, only about 150 thousand people live in it, but survey of all its sights and the museums will require several days.
I recommend to begin survey with visit of fortress of Hoenzaltsburg (Festung Hohensalzburg) which settled down on the abrupt mountain. From fortifications and observation decks surprisingly beautiful view of the city and its vicinities opens. You will be able not only admire them, but also to make the plan of further routes for the city as all main sights of the city will be before you, clearly.
Fortress impresses with the look, it one of the few in Europe remained practically without changes since the Middle Ages. Fortress of Hoenzaltsburg conducts the history with the 11th century when the first wooden strengthenings were built to a grief. Soon they were replaced by powerful stone walls. Fortress constantly extended and became stronger, having become really unapproachable. The latest construction works in it came to the end in the 17th century. From now on appearance of fortress did not change if reorganizations and were carried out, then only in fortifications.
It is possible to reach fortress on the funicular, it will take only 1 - 2 minutes. But I recommend to use the funicular for descent, and to climb upward the abrupt walking path beginning with Festungsgasse Street. On the way before you the panorama of the ancient city will gradually open. And it is possible to feel inaccessibility and greatness of fortress, having only done a way to it on foot.
On the way you will be able to come into the monastery Nonnberg founded on the place of ancient Roman strengthenings in 700. It is one of the oldest operating convents of Europe. It is surrounded by the powerful walls which are, in fact, the lower stronghold of the fortress located over it. It is reddish - a brown dome of the monastic church constructed in the 15th century it is visible almost from any corner of the city. From the monastery the beautiful view of suburbs, the river Zaltsakh crossing the city, and the mountain of Capuchins opens (if time allows, later it is possible to rise by this mountain too).
In the fortress the mass of interesting objects. Surely rise by a tower Rekkturm with which the circular panorama of the city and vicinities - a look fantastically beautiful opens. Take “audio - the guide“ (on it is mute there is a switch into Russian if I am not mistaken, the button No. 6), it will help to obtain exhaustive information on fortress and its internal rooms.
Pay attention to the oldest body in Europe with the oddish name “Salzburg Bull“ (for it Wolfgang Mozart`s father wrote music), original tools and devices in a torture chamber, perfectly issued princely rooms, unique exhibits in the serf museums. Visit Saint Georgy`s church, in it there are Gothic bas-reliefs with the image of twelve apostles.
I recommend to climb down a serf mountain on the funicular. You will appear at the beginning of Festungsgasse Street, at the left there will be a complex of the monastery of Saint Pyotr whose history began in the 7th century, and ahead - the Cathedral. There is a lot of temples and monasteries in the city and its vicinities, for centuries Salzburg was one of the centers of Catholicism and was operated by archbishops.
Survey of the monastery of the Saint Pyotr constructed by an award of Benedictines will not take a lot of time. In church the remains of frescos of the 12th century, an internal portal and a chapel of “Holy Spirit“ of the 13th century, organ on which Mozart played. In internal court yard original fountains, statues of Saints Pyotr and Rupert, a well with the pomp established in 1600, and in the former refectory - restaurant which is considered the oldest in Austria.
Curiously monastic cemetery which was based during the late Roman era. It is surrounded by arcades with openwork shod lattices. Ancient burials and epitaphs remained. There are graves of the composer Haydn, the sister Mozart Nannerl, many celebrated historic figures. Nearby entrance to catacombs. Surely visit them, not a sight for the faint of heart.
From the monastery it is possible to pass to a complex of the buildings and areas surrounding the Cathedral of Salzburg. Yuzhnaya Square, Kapitelplats, decorates the big fountain of the Neptune which once was under construction as a swimming bath for horses. Nearby an original modern sculpture “Sphere“ - a huge gilded sphere. If to pass under arches, you will get on Domplptts Square. It kept the historical appearance, in the center of the area a sculpture of the Mother of God in an environment of allegorical figures. In summertime on the square periodically there take place performances and concerts.
The Cathedral is of special interest. The first cathedral on this place, and the sizes (66 by 33 meters) enormous for those times was constructed in the 8th century. It was repeatedly reconstructed, having reached in the 12th century of length 112 meters. Modern 99 - the meter cathedral 76 meters high began to be built at the beginning of the 17th century when old seriously suffered from the fire. It is curious that construction of the cathedral accomodating 10 thousand people took only 14 years.
The cathedral is majestic and beautiful. His facade is decorated by marble statues, inside enormous body with 4 thousand pipes, the cast font made in 1321 (in it Mozart was baptized), tombs of Salzburg archbishops (local princes), a crucifixion of 1220, a fresco, a sculpture, etc. the Cathedral is worth it to spend time for its survey.
Behind a cathedral there is the biggest city square - Rezidentsplats. Already according to the name it is clear that on it there were residences of the local archbishops ruling the region within six centuries. Residences here two - old and new though both are constructed at the beginning of the 17th century with a difference in several years. The main decoration of the area - the big fountain in Baroque style.
The Old residence is especially interesting. At it the beautiful courtyard, a view of certain halls did not change since construction, and on the third and fourth floors in magnificently decorated halls fine expositions of pictures, sculptures, home decoration were placed. Here in the hall of Conference the first concert of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to which then was only 6 (six once took place!) years.
In the New residence too the big museum, several showrooms and one of local sights - 26 - meter “Satler`s Panorama“. Near the residence a belltower with 35 bells which call three times a day.
From ancient buildings interest is of the former university church of Kollegiyenkirkhe - a bright sample of baroque which construction began in 1696; Franciscan church in which 9 chapels are arranged and the architecture and an interior decor represent an original combination of styles from a gothic style to rococo; the monastery of Capuchins on the mountain of the same name; Saint Sebastian`s church near which there is the former central cemetery of Salzburg. By the way, the cemetery issued in the Italian style with nearly 90 crypts, very picturesquely on it is a family grave Motsartov, the archbishop Wolf Dietrich and the great doctor Srednevekovya Paracelsus are buried here.
In the city the mass of interesting buildings and objects, whose age is estimated many centuries. It is impossible to list them all and there is no need for it. To present how ancient Salzburg looked, just walk across Getreydegasse - the oldest shopping street of the city. In ancient, but very well-groomed houses little shops, souvenir shops, small restaurants and cafe were placed here, and the street comes to the end with an ancient Gothic cathedral over which mountains hang. Walk also on other not less colourful ancient small streets: Yudengasse, Goldgasse, Kegasse, Lintsergasse, Shtayngasse, on them it is possible to see practically all architectural styles replacing each other in Europe through many centuries.
It is curious that the princes of church ruling Salzburg through many centuries not only turned it into the city - the museum, but also constantly invited talented architects, sculptors, artists, musicians, scientists to the yard. Many years lived in Salzburg composers the father and Motsarta`s son, the composer and the violinist - the virtuoso Heinrich Bieber, the mathematician and the physicist Christian Dopler, ended a course of life of the famous doctor and alchemist Paracelsus here. How Salzburg became the recognized European center of culture, in the following article.