Edouard Manet or Who was called “ predecessor of impressionism “?
the Beginning of works of the largest French artist Edouard Manet fell on the middle of the 19th century. Delacroix, Ingres, Corot, representatives of barbizonsky school, Daumier, Millet and Courbet were notable painters of that time. Soon began to add to these names also Manet, especially, so far as concerned attempts of updating of art language. Further this name will be always connected with artists - the impressionists considering Manet the predecessor and the inspirer. Critics consider as a big merit that it found a way from one generation of the French artists to another. Manet`s works decorate the largest museums of the world.
Any beginning artist then could be seen in Louvre. Copying of pictures of old painters was considered obligatory for taste education. Copied them and Manet, and not only in Louvre. In 1856 he visited Holland, Austria, Italy. He was interested in different masters of the past, but the special attention was drawn by Spaniards: Velasquez and Goya.
Manet wanted to restore the traditions going from art of the XVI-XVII centuries and to use them for updating of modern painting. Like masters of the past, he looked for present signs in faces of people, their manner to behave. The picture " became a peculiar farewell to romanticism; Fan of " absinthe liqueur; created at the end of 1850 - x years. In a dark raincoat, in the hat pulled over eyes the man, near it a glass, about legs a bottle sits. Its social accessory cannot be understood. In everything some detachment is felt, as the artist managed to tell ingeniously.
A series of pictures of Manet began 1860 - x years is connected with the Spanish subject: “ Gitarrero “ “ The Quiz Meran in a suit of an espad “ and “ Lola from Valencia “. Pictures reflected its interest not only in painting of old Spanish masters, but also interest in art of the dancers and singers of Spain who are going on tour at that time in Paris. So in Manet`s cloths happily met old and new. Their ratio always variously, but this long time defined style of its art.
In 1863 Manet paints the pictures “ The Breakfast on a grass “ and “ Olympia “. They made the artist known among contemporaries and created glory at descendants. In “ The Breakfast on a grass “ he aspires “ to modernize “ subjects of old pictures: the naked model sits among the men dressed in modern suits, one more woman is visible at the coast.
Opening of the Parisian Salon of 1865 was marked by grandiose scandal. Crowds of visitors, having fluently examined halls, directed to the one and only picture. They laughed loudly, were indignant, swinging canes and umbrellas. The picture was nearly broken off on part. Put military guard to it, but also it did not help. Then it was placed in the latest hall highly over a door. And all the same people went on an exhibition only with one purpose - to see become already well-known “ Venus with a cat “ E. Manet subsequently called “ Olympia “.
“ Obscenity! “ “ Cynicism! “ - it was yet not the most rough abuse in its address.
Manet was horrified. He dreamed of glory, but not of scandalous popularity. The paradoxicality of this person is that his talent was above his personality. The rebel and the revolutionary in painting, Manet was an ordinary person - respectable, not alien vanities. Three years ago it ran into scandal in Salon Outcast, having exposed the “ The Breakfast on a grass “ and, hoping to take a revenge, again encountered furious rejection of the art.
He did not understand, than did not please public. His pictures were connected with art of Old masters. “ The Breakfast on a grass “ was to paraphrases “ Rural concert “ Giorgione, and “ Olympia “ - reminiscence about “ To Venus Urbinskaya “ Tiziana, “ Venerakh “ Giorgione and Velasquez. The motive of the Black woman standing nearby was used by Rubens in “ Bathsheba “ it was loved in old romantic genres, there often were exotic characters. And the notorious cat even more increased similarity with “ Venus Urbinskaya “ - her legs had a doggie.
But the public was indignant with an ulterior motive. In this traditional motive “ nu “ the sharp note of the present which created newly appeared " was felt; To Venus “ absolutely other context. Before the audience the young, but already faded being with a passionless look and eyes, " appeared; to which it is not given either bitterness, or tenderness “. Velvet ribbon on a neck, a pink bow in red hair, ear rings, a bracelet, house shoes - these almost inaudible details created an image of the woman who could be hardly associated with the goddess. And the bent black cat (personifying an Eros) hinted that on a cloth the woman of doubtful reputation is represented. Alas, this scandal was not the last in Manet`s life. All 20 years to the death persecution and sneers did not leave it. Manet persistently tried to break through in Salon, and the jury with the same sequence did not take over its work. Were so rejected “ Flutist “ “ Swallows “ “ Masquerade in the opera “.
But its painting young masters loved: Degas, Basil, Claude Monet, Pissarro. Baudelaire and Zola admired his pictures. Rejected by jury of Salon and official criticism, it found understanding and participation in a circle of friends - artists. Being going to cafe of Gerbua on a ryuda - Batinyol, they gradually rallied in the peculiar group which received the name “ Batinyolsky school “. From “ batinyolets “ there were almost all future impressionists. And though Manet divided their program only partly, he always remained the recognized leader and the head of the new current. In something pupils were more considerably than the teacher and went further him. But Manet`s art was that change with which absolutely new era - an era of the latest painting began.
In 1867 Manet shows the works in the certain pavilion. In the preface to the catalog he writes “ I want to be oneself and to truthfully transfer the impressions “. To this exhibition the artist painted the picture “ Execution of the emperor Maksimilian in Kveretaro “ the French applicant for the Mexican throne devoted to death. Work proves that Manet was concerned by many political events. The police forbade demonstration of a picture and release of its lithograph.
Manet`s art was not alien to political topical character. Not without reason his name appeared in official Bulletins of the Commune of Paris, and the artist was in absentia chosen in structure of Committee of federation of artists. In May, 1871 Manet, having returned to Paris from Bordeaux, found death of the Commune and painted several pictures devoted to this subject.
At the end of 1860 - x years Manet creates such known pictures as “ Flutist “ “ Balcony “ “ The Breakfast in the workshop “ “ Zola`s Portrait “ - an appreciation tribute to the writer who passionately protected Manet`s art. In 1874 the first exhibition of artists - impressionists opened. It demonstrated large changes in art of France. Manet refused to participate in it, but creativity of a number of impressionists caused his sympathies.
Manet died in 1883. The big exhibition of its works at School of fine arts was open. The preface to the catalog was written by Emil Zola. At the initiative of artists the subscription for acquisition of the picture " by the state was organized; Olympia “ which was wanted to be sold to America. When the cloth was acquired, it was hung out in the hall near Ingres`s works. So Louvre accepted Manet`s art which was appreciated now at the level of recognized masters.
The largest artists yours faithfully spoke of Manet`s pictures. In Russia interest in his creativity was shown by I. Repin and V. Serov, and in France the largest masters of the XX century Matisse and Picasso were interested in Manet`s creativity. Edouard Manet remains an example of devoted service to art. His love for beauty of surrounding reality, for the person - the main property of big art, to them divided and experienced.