What it is possible to make of a bone? Art of the North
More than a third of our immense country occupy areas of Far North. The nature is severe here. In June still quite often pours a snowball, under the soil permafrost. And when in the middle of the summer thaws its top layer, the bogs covered with hummocks are formed. In short month of heat and light - July - is a lot of flowers and berries, but animal and the flora is avaricious. Only there are a lot of birds from whom the beauty distinguishes pink seagulls. And then again long polar night - whole half a year... And still the one who lived ever in the Polar region always keeps love to its unique world.
On Far North more than 20 people and nationalities. All of them have the ancient and very interesting culture in which noticeable place is taken by applied art. From olden days inhabitants of the North did clothes, household goods and jewelry, using natural materials - skins of animals and birds, a grass and a tree and fish skin, suede and, of course, a bone.
The bone was used different: a morzhovy canine, baleen, a cervine horn and a mamontovy bone which was especially often found in Yakutia. Before, before emergence of metal, the bone was universal material in the north. Interestingly, as today in the Nenets language almost each adjective is used with the word “ bone “: for example, a wooden powder flask - “ la - gunpowder - ly “ - “ wooden powder bone “. Did tackles for fishing, hunting and reindeer breeding of a bone, buttons, shanks of knives and many other things. Northern masters skillfully cut a bone, ground and polished it, covered with a color engraving, could put the thinnest patterns of metal incrustation.
Art of the Yakut bone carvers is various in the forms. Here both an openwork pro-carved carving of objects and jewelry, and small plasticity which kind is traditional Yakut chess, and production of vessels for koumiss - choron. Forms of choron are peculiar and plastic. They conduct the family tree from Scythian vessels with pallets and legs. Chorona are decorated with ornaments and it is frequent - sculptural reliefs.
Masters are concerned by the most different subjects. Almost at the same time also the sculptural compositions cast by ancient legends and fairy tales and works over the plots taken from history on hot topics exactly today are born. At the exhibition held in the Moscow historical museum, devoted to northern art works stood nearby: “ Manchaara “ (Yakut legendary hero) and “ " koumiss Production;.
The Yakut sculpture is carried out from a mamontovy bone which has dense structure, is beautiful the opaque polished surface, in slightly yellowish warm color. This bone is easily cut and allows to reach special plasticity. The composition always keeps compact, slightly stocky form, it is not really strongly dismembered and always on a support. The master pays much attention to tiny study of persons and transfer of national clothes. Works of the Yakut bone carvers possess pronounced national character. There is always a plot, the story, there is some action that allows to consider the Yakut sculpture genre. Works on historical subjects are especially interesting. They are solved always peculiar - through a legend, the fairy tale with its metaphor, the giperbolichnost emphasized with dynamics, bright decorative effect.
The Chukchi art of a carving and engraving up to a bone absolutely other. That and perfectly folk art that in each art trade the are created, only to it inherent, unique products. Traditions of a carved Chukchi bone contain the millennia - tell excavation of archeologists about it. The northern sculpture from a bone is avaricious on color: white color and a coldish blue engraving on supports. And in this color restraint - big integrity and special beauty. The Chukchi sculpture is carried out from a morzhovy canine. Its processing is difficult - at a canine the thin blanket suitable for work.
In the Chukchi sculpture the openwork pro-carved equipment, as at Yakuts is not used. There are no multifigured compositions also. Composite sculptures appeared here already in Soviet period. Figures of separate animals are most traditional. Habits of an animal, his shape and character are familiar to the Chukchi master as the hunter, the reindeer breeder and the fisher. Works just strike with the truthfulness, unusual vitality, high art advantages. The master is able to select the main thing, the most characteristic, to transfer all peculiar poses and animal habits in the avaricious movement. At the same time beauty of a piece of a bone with its soft smooth lines flowing one in another volumes without the sharp transitions contraindicated to a bone remains. It also gives to the Chukchi sculpture perfect plasticity, special musicality.
Only the unique type of folk art - a color engraving up to a bone is peculiar to Chukotka. It is dynamic, transfers the most various plots: ancient tales of the sun, of the beautiful girl, of skillful hunters and fishers, shows also modern transformations in the region. Sculptures carry out men, and the engraved products - mainly women. Usually household objects are engraved: a glass for pencils, a knife or just a canine of a walrus on which will develop the whole picture story.
The third center of the bone carving folk art is in Tobolsk. The Russian bone carving trade arose here at the end of the 19th century. One of favourite plots in old time were so-called “ ostyatsky farms “ (Khanty and Mansi in the past were called ostyak and Voguls). On a support it was represented plagues - the traditional dwelling of ostyak, people in national fur clothes, deer, dogs, sledge on which go by the North, amusing household sketches nearby.
The Tobolsk sculpture kept the traditional lines: it is a mnogofigurna, the povestvovatelna is, as a rule, carried out on a support. For example, at an exhibition the skulpturka with a plot " was presented; Tale of the fisherman and small fish “. Traditional occupations of the northern people are very often represented. But the modern master is interested not only household plots, but also any event from life. Here children go to school with portfolios, here the girl with the book...
In memory of an interesting, informative exhibition I bought the small branch of lilies of the valley on a support executed from a cervine horn.
The illustrations ru/rusKost are used