At the intersection of cultures: how in Florence Avraamy Suzdalsky and Filippo Brunelleschi met?
About Avraamiya Suzdalsk, one of many bishops of the Old Russian past, the general reader, probably, do not know. But many have heard a lot about an event with which the trip of this person to Italy came to the end.
An event - unsuccessful attempt to overcome a gap between Western and East tserkvama. At Ferraro - the Florentine cathedral (1438 - 1445) on which the Florentine union (1439) rejected by Russia was signed subsequently the prelate Avraamy also was present at structure of suite of the metropolitan Isidor representing the Russian church.
But not the story about the union is the purpose of this narration. And those data on life of Florence which remained for history of world culture in created by Avraamy “ The Legend on a hail an izha in the fryazhsky earth and about Rise of church and Kako in it action is arranged to Florenza with a marvelous structure “.
“ Action “ about which there is a speech in “ legend “ the prelate Avraamiya, - the phenomenon from the category of religious mysteries, very popular in the Middle Ages. At a certain calendar moment the liturgical drama corresponding to time was played in the temple and about it, and its purpose was - to reproduce this or that evangelical event, to remind believers an episode of Sacred history.
It practiced also in Western Europe, and in Ancient Russia. A distant echo of that tradition is the device Christmas “ dens “ at modern Catholic temples.
Machiavelli in the “ Stories of Florence “ designated the purpose of similar actions with frankness peculiar to it: “... to occupy the people, to fill with something his mind and to distract from thought of position of the state “. These dramas were required to be played “ with such splendor and magnificence that within several months all city was occupied with preparation and festival “.
Really, preparation to “ to action “ and execution occupied it time and minds of citizens, but - also delivered them high religious experiences. And that is important - gave the theater which is eager for entertainments pleasure.
Avraamy, the hierarch of the Russian church, knew, so to speak, the actual basis “ actions “. And at most esthetic experience could be capable to get into an essence observed - it honestly describes the events “ on a scene “ based on the everyday and religious experience. Also exclaims, trying to express the admiration: “ Beautiful and wonderful this show! And still sweet and inexpressible fun executed “.
“ Legend “ in addition, forms very nice shape of the author for the reader. Suzdalsky the archbishop appears at us the person open, inquisitive, unbiassed. It comes to church in which “ action “ it is played, long before the beginning - and with attention examines scenery. Avraamy at the same time also realizes skilfulness of technical maintenance of a performance - and tries to define in what a secret “ focus “:
“ During raising of an angel from above, from the father with great noise and a continuous thunder fire went to earlier mentioned ropes and to the middle of a scaffold where prophets stood. And up this fire came back and from top nimbly came from top to bottom. And from this address of fire and from blows all church was filled with sparks “.
And everything to understand - “ as it works “ - cannot, and already writes only about the delight: “ The Angel rose to the top, rejoicing and wagging with hands there and here and moving wings. Simply and clearly it is visible how it flies. Fire plentifully begins to proceed from an upper berth and on all church pours with a great and terrible thunder. And not lit candles in church from great this fire are lit. And the audience and their ports are present no harm. Marvelous and terrible this show. The angel came back up to the place from where went down, fire ceases and curtains everything are still closed “.
And then is distressed the inability to express the feelings in words: “ This strange show and the cunning device were seen in the city of Florence and how many could maloumiy understand the, described this show. Otherwise it is also impossible to describe as it prechudno and inexpressibly... How many could, it is so much and wrote, but I cannot leave such cunning show in drowsiness. For the sake of reminiscence wrote because strange this show and inexpressible. And it is full of pleasure, and according to it as saw - it is impossible to test or tell truly in any way. Both could, and wrote “.
The description of representation made by Avraamy - a valuable historical source. It, first of all, and also some more documents which became known later scientists for the characteristic of creativity of famous Filippo Brunelleschi - the architect, the engineer, the artist, the sculptor, the poet, the jeweler - the word used, one of titans of the Renaissance. Brunelleschi possesses scenography seen by Avraamy in Florence “ actions “ - “ Annunciation “ and “ Rises “. He is the author of those surprising cars which provided “ cunning show “ and so blew the mind of the Russian guest.
Based on the description of the prelate Avraamy, the architect Cesare Lisi made in 1975 reconstruction of scenery of Brunelleschi for action “ Rise “. The model in scale 1:25 was the same year presented at the " exhibition; Theatrical space in Florence “ and in 1978 this exhibition was shown in Moscow, in the Pushkin museum.
And how all - they met, great florentinets Brunelleschi and the Suzdal archbishop? Perhaps also did not meet. Or perhaps nevertheless their ways - in Florence, in 1439 were crossed, at this time the great architect actively worked in the hometown. Avraamy`s notes remained, unfortunately, in fragments. Scientists, for example, were at a loss even with definition of churches at which Avraamy was present on “ actions “. What was written down on the lost manuscript fragments - it is only possible to guess it...
But in other sense their meeting took place unambiguously: contemporaries, people of one era, there is a wish to hope - one culture, they spoke one language - Renaissance language. One performed adequately the work - another saw it and estimated the same as Brunelleschi`s compatriots estimated.