Rus Articles Journal

How there was a Solar system? Part 3

B 1943 the Soviet astronomer Otto Yulyevich Schmidt put forward the theory of an origin of Solar system. The scientist assumed that planets were formed of the substance taken from gazovo - a dust fog through which once there passed the Sun, already then having almost modern look.

On Schmidt`s hypothesis the Sun, rotating around the Galaxy, took a huge cold cloud of dust, and from substance of this cloud then cold dense doplanetny bodies - planetezimal were created.

Since 1961, this hypothesis was developed by the English kosmogonist Littlton who brought in it significant improvements, but the same sense: The sun faces some space object and takes its particles.

Modern researchers support the point of view of Schmidt that planets were condensed from rather cold gazovo - a dust cloud. There are direct observation instructions on the fact that formation of stars happens in areas where the amount of interstellar dust is especially high, and data of geochemistry confirm that Earth really was in a cold state in the beginning.

A the second main assumption of Schmidt that the protoplanetary cloud is formed by capture is disproved by modern scientific knowledge. The matter is that according to researches the following fact takes place: two bodies (for example, a star and a fog) if they initially were at distance far from each other, then they will fly by by each other with a huge speed and will not be able to connect in system.

In 60 - x of the 20th century appeared the first brought closer quantitative theories of joint formation of the Sun and a protoplanetary cloud (F. Hoil, Great Britain, 1960; A. Cameron, USA, 1962; E. Shatsman, France, 1967) . In these theories in this or that form the separation of substance from the contracting protosun was considered. As well as many years ago, a stumbling block of all theories is the moment of number of the movement which as it was told earlier, followed also ways of the theory of Kant - Laplace.

Hoil and Shatsman sought to show calculations that the protoplanetary cloud had minimum admissible weight. For an explanation of distribution of the moment of number of the movement between the Sun and planets Hoil used idea of Swedish astrophysics H. Alvena about a possibility of magnetic coupling of the rotating Sun and ionized substance of a protoplanetary cloud thanks to which the Sun can transfer the moment to nearby parts of a protoplanetary cloud.

Shatsman explained a slowness of rotation of the modern Sun with loss of some part of substance from the surface of the Sun which occurred after transformation of the protosun into the Sun. This explanation of a slowness of rotation of the Sun is considered the most probable.

Cameron in the works 60 - x assumed that the Solar system resulted from compression (collapse) of an interstellar cloud, and developed the theory of evolution of such cloud, ignoring the found difficulties.

Along with the researches defining the general line of development of a planetary cosmogony there are representations which are not using wide recognition. So, Alven develops with 40 - x are 20 century old a hypothesis that formation of planetary system at all stages was defined by generally electromagnetic forces. For this purpose the young Sun had to possess very strong magnetic field, in thousands of times stronger, than modern.

The English scientist M. Vulfson in 60 - 70 - x 20 century tried to develop a hypothesis according to which acquisition by the Sun of protoplanetary substance was explained by a combination of tidal influence and capture: The sun took clots of the substance which is pulled out by its attraction from the rarefied protostar which was flying by by. As well as Jeans`s hypothesis, this scheme has many weak places and does not enjoy popularity.

The data which are saved up by astrophysics say that stars including stars of solar type, are formed in gazovo - dust complexes. Apparently, and the Sun was formed with group of stars during difficult process of compression and fragmentation of a similar massive fog.

B 80 - e of the 20th century appeared detailed calculations by training about the contracting protostar (Sun) flattened gazovo - a dust disk.

The curious fact that in spite of the fact that over the years knowledge of mankind in the field of a cosmogony only increased, new more perfect equipment for studying of space spaces appeared, modern astronomers returned to thought that the Sun and planets arose from the extensive, not cold fog consisting of gas and dust. Powerful telescopes found in interstellar space numerous gas and dust clouds from which some are really condensed in new stars. In this regard the initial theory of Kant - Laplace was processed with attraction of the latest data.

It is obvious that sooner or later scientists will be able to answer a question of an origin and further evolution of Solar system, but hardly it happens shortly. There have to pass years before the level of the knowledge accumulated by society becomes sufficient to answer all questions of a cosmogony. But that day when the exact answer is given will become history of mankind as day of the greatest opening. Also as in due time opening of the scientific kosmogonist making own hypotheses of an origin of Solar system.