How there was a Solar system? Part 1
Solar system consists of the central star of the Sun and small satellites surrounding its sets - planets, asteroids (minor planets), comets, meteorites and uncountable small meteoric particles and motes. Thanks to efforts of scientists, a lot of things are known to mankind of Solar system, and every year the volume of this knowledge only increases. But, about an origin of Solar system, scientists cannot precisely answer one of the major questions still, despite abundance of various theories.
At the moment development of human society of the uniform, complete theory of formation of stars, planets or galaxies just does not exist. It is also necessary to note that for today one of the most developed is the hypothesis of Soviet scientific of Schmidt who offered the theory in the middle of the twentieth century.
Scientists who are engaged in the solution of questions of an origin of space bodies are called kosmogonist. A cosmogony - the field of science studying an origin and development of space bodies and their systems: planets and their satellites, fogs, stars and star congestions, galaxies, Solar system, at last.
History of development and change of cosmogonic hypotheses shows that those from them which treated formation of planetary system as an event exclusive, steadily suffered crash. The modern astronomy adduces serious arguments in favor of presence of planetary systems at many stars, in favor of their typicalness, but not exclusiveness.
In the ancient time when there were no exact data on space objects and on Earth in particular, the question of an origin and evolution of Solar system was area of discussions of philosophers who believed that the Universe and Solar system are something firm and eternal. Ancient astronomers considered that space objects existed always and will eternally exist in the invariable look.
The first scientific hypotheses concerning a geogenesis and Solar system based on astronomical supervision were put forward only in the 18th century. Since then new cosmogonic theories which developed and improved owing to the fact that there was new practical and theoretical knowledge in the field of physics, astronomy and other accompanying sciences did not cease to appear. But, as practice shows, not always the theories appearing later were more well-founded than the predecessors.
One of the first scientific theories can consider stated in 1745 to French scientific Byuffony a hypothesis that planets were formed of the substance which is thrown out from the Sun after its collision with a comet. This theory was a certain touchstone in the field of a cosmogony, but had under itself no powerful theoretical justifications, was practically not proved.
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant in 1755 offered the theory of formation of Solar system which was based on the law of universal gravitation. This theory assumed that the Solar system arose from a cloud of the cold motes which are in random motion. Thus, Kant proceeded from evolutionary development of a cold dust fog during which at first there was the central body - the Sun but only then other planets.
The simplified sense of the theory of the scientist consists in the following: initially in space certain primary matter was scattered. Particles of this matter were in the movement, moving diversely. When particles faced with each other, they lost speed. The heaviest and dense of them under the influence of force of an attraction united with each other, forming central a body - the Sun which, then attracted more remote, easy particles.
As a result there was a quantity of the rotating bodies which trajectories were crossed among themselves. The part of these bodies which were originally moving in opposite directions were pulled in in a uniform stream and formed the rings of gaseous matter located approximately in one plane and rotating around the Sun in one direction.
From these rings subsequently planets also appeared: in rings dense kernels to which easier particles were gradually attracted were formed, forming spherical congestions of matter. The planets formed thus turned around the Sun in the same planes, as gaseous rings which preceded them.