Why the Karelian ate bark?
“ Elementary, Watson “. Here it, answer. On to a look.
Where it, this Karelia? In the north. As speak now - in a zone of risky agriculture. Well and, besides, it is necessary to consider also that as suitable for processing there were few lands. Karelia - same the woods, lakes, bogs and... stones, stones.
Therefore before reform of 1861 grain the Karelian peasants grew up the most part on pozhoga in the wood. Work is troublesome, heavy and wearisome. Also it was enough for all members of a numerous patriarchal Karelian family. “ Kaskes on kaikil ruattu “ - “ On cut all will have enough work “ - so Karelians spoke. As well as “ Leip?? e leikin lyopi, ennen kuin eteh? uopi “ - “ Before bread you will dance before on a table you put “.
And here efficiency of this type of agriculture was low. If it is soft so to speak.
Situation and after reform when with bread only peasants of the Olonets county provided themselves did not change, the Old Believers of some pudozhsky villages and rich peasants who had in economy there is a lot of cattle and, respectively, such valuable organic fertilizer as manure. At the same time it is only about the southern and, partially, central Karelia. To the north belomorsky Karelians grain did not sow at all. There was no sense - these cultures there just did not grow ripe.
Therefore most part the Karelian was necessary to buy imported flour. Farms were rather poor and was preferred cheaper, rye to which at baking of bread it was required to add barley flour. Barley, in turn, was the most important cultural cereal of the Karelian plant growing. The Karelian name of barley - ozra - is conformable to the word oza - happiness that in household symbolics as linguists consider, corresponded to value of a blagozhelaniye and on the sacral sense practically coincided with similar Russian couple: zhito - to live. But … From one barley not to bake some bread.
Respectively, even those farms in which grain were grown up were forced to bribe rye and, in smaller quantities, more expensive - wheat.
Across Karelia I have no corresponding statistics. But Finland which is in similar prirodno - climatic conditions, in 1913 imported grains on 117,5 million Finnish brands that made 23,8% of all import of the Grand duchy Finnish. It is a lot of. And it was the serious problem. It is enough to pay attention that the peak of the Finnish emigration to America had on poor harvest, 1902.
In Karelia, naturally, too happened, and it is not so rare, lean years. Here then to bread it was necessary to mix an additive from dried pounded fish (to 85 - 90%) and other substitutes (straw, a clover, potatoes). Who had also no it, ate porridge from the pine sapwood welded on milk. Of course, a sapwood - not bark. It is young and less dense bed of wood directly under bark.
But to you it is not necessary to perceive a saying literally, about the main thing it - very much it is even right. Whether Cora, a sapwood - is it important? Even if and on milk - not from good life all this, forcedly. If to consider that food by pine porridge was business very dangerous. Once you lived on it more than a month, people began to be ill. Even fatal cases were frequent. Therefore memory that the Karelian ate bark... It - bitter. Where as is more bitter than that pine sapwood which had to be eaten in lean years.
Bread in Karelia was very important product. “ There would be bread edge, and under a fir-tree paradise “ so spoke and now speak here. Here only … Generally bread was rye. With addition barley or, on big holidays, wheat flour. And it is one of features of ethnic cuisine.
Here to take, for example, gates which bake not only in Karelia. But even the Finnish hostesses, putting in the furnace a baking sheet with them, carry out this dish according to the category of purely Karelian. < - so these open pies with a stuffing call i> Karjalan piiras in Finland.
So, gates! Each Karelian hostess knows - “ kalittoa - kyzyy kaheksoa “. Well, and now and you it is aware that “ the gate asks the eights “.
To bake gates, eight components are necessary. Flour, water, curdled milk, salt, milk, oil, sour cream and stuffing. As which potatoes, grain or oat flour can be used. Bake gates of various form: round, oval, four - five - hexagonal and even heptagonal. But most often oval form, something reminding the boat without which not to hook fish in any way meets. Well, and what Karelian table without it? Edges of gates either are pinched (as a rule), or bent on 4 - 7 corners. But it is already more rare.
For preparation of the test in a bowl it is necessary to pour a glass of curdled milk which can be replaced with fresh milk or sour cream. Then we add a little water, salt and well we stir everything. In liquid we pour out flour. Rye. Also we knead dense dough. If there is no rye flour, dough can be made from black bread. For what from a loaf it is necessary to cut off a crust, and to fill in pulp with kefir or sour cream and to allow it to stand a little.
As dough is ready, it is necessary to lay out it from a bowl on a board and already on it to knead until it does not cease to stick to hands and a board. Ceased? Now it is necessary to allow to the test to stand a little. And as will stand - to roll it in a sausage and to cut pieces on the identical size. From them to create balls. Already from balls - small flat cakes (7 - 8 cm in the diameter) which that dough did not dry, having powdered with flour, to pile.
From a pile we take on one flat cake and we roll with a their thickness of 1 - 1,5 mm and with a diameter of 30 - 35 cm. Our hostesses call these thin flat cakes skanets. We stack them at each other too. That they did not stick together, it is necessary to powder them with flour slightly.
The stuffing can be from grain (boiled or soaked) or mashed potatoes. The Krupyany stuffing is prepared from a yachka or millet. Barley grits are not boiled, and since evening add to it a little melted butter and presoaked in curdled milk. By the morning it becomes soft and slightly sourish on taste. To clean this sourness, it is possible to add to a stuffing of fresh milk. Yachnevy gates are good the fact that they equally tasty both hot, and cold.
Millet for gates is washed out, boiled in milk, salted and add butter. At the same time porridge has to be knitting.
Met recipes which suggest to fill gates with the oat flour which is densely mixed with the fresh added some salt curdled milk or sour cream, but itself did not try such option.
Mashed potatoes for a stuffing surely are done of potatoes cooked in “ uniform “. Hot potatoes are quickly peeled, kneaded a tolkushka, add hot milk, sour cream, salt, an egg yolk, butter. Mashed potatoes have to be not really dense.
Olonets and Tikhvin Karelians bake gates with cottage cheese.
Before when at the hostess the stuffing came to an end, and skanets still remained, quickly did garvyo - mixed barley fine flour with curdled milk, the last skanets filled with milk or sour cream and this weight.
All? The stuffing is ready? Then it is on skanets and, already at him, to bend and pinch edge. From this edge of a gate turn out such wavy that distinguishes them from the same shaneg - almost similar Russian dish. The bent and zashchipanny edge is greased with the added some salt sour cream mixed with a crude yolk and baked in an oven of minutes 10 - 15.
And still. Ready gates, so far they hot, it is necessary to grease with butter plentifully. Very interesting Karelian custom is connected with this processing method. If any of neighbors came to the house while the hostess, having already taken out gates from the furnace, oiled them, then entered had to say: “ Kaunehet keat voitajalla “ (“ Beautiful hands smearing “). What the hostess traditionally answered: “ Tule, ota voitajasta “ - “ Go, take smeared “.
So, you come. Also take.
smeared … __________________________
By way of illustration used a picture from the website ru