Why so different Karelians?
If attentively to look at data of Federal State Statistics Service, then by results of census of 2002 in the territory of Russia live 93344 Karelians. Overwhelming part of them, 65 651 persons or 70,3%, - in Karelia. But, not only: 2057 people - in the Leningrad region, boundary with Karelia.
And there is nothing strange - east and northern Priladozhye historically was that territory in which Karelians from time immemorial lodged. And here in the Tver region, to the North from the Top Volga where them now 14633 persons (15,7%), they appeared forcedly.
So it turned out that many centuries Karelians were between the Russian hammer and the Swedish anvil. In a border zone. Which often passed from hand to hand. And was under the power of Mister of Veliky Novgorod, took over the Swedish crown, again came back under a hand of sovereigns Moscow.
In 1617. according to the Stolbovsky peace treaty, Priladozhye and areas to the South and the East from the Gulf of Finland were attached to Sweden which in these territories began intensive campaign for the compulsory address of the population to Protestant belief.
From - for it, and also unreasonably heavy taxes, by 1670 on the lands of Bezhetsk Upland which became empty for hunger and epidemics in the period of the Time of Troubles about 30 thousand people moved. The isolated group Upper Volga (Tver) the Karelian was so formed. On the basis of a number of the general signs some researchers carry to them the created in similar conditions and at the same time small groups living a little to the west, at sources of Volga, Valdai (or Novgorod), and also Tikhvin the Karelian.
About Tver, Tikhvin or Valdai I can tell nothing. Somehow it was not necessary to face. And here about, native … Those that in the republic bearing their name. Probably, it is possible in more detail.
Only why republic Karelian … Actually, - it is slightly more than nine percent of Karelians from 720 thousand its inhabitants. And their specific weight in the total number of the population of Karelia is steadily lost. If in 1897 among inhabitants of the Olonets province there were 42,3% the Karelian, then in 1926 in the territory of the Karelian Labour Commune - 38,2, and in 1940 in Karelo - Finnish the Soviet Socialist Republic - already 23,3%.
Here. From here, most likely, legs also grow! Where - the same should be attached created on December 1, 1939 in taken by parts of Red Army Teriyokakh the national government of the Democratic Republic of Finland? Which to Finns appeared absolutely even to anything … But in a close-knit family of the Soviet people the sixteenth federal republic appeared.
And now all of us - in Karelia. Though even if and in minority, but here, it seems as, in, native, of the same name … Only a name - that, really, - one. And even here and that is different Karelians. Different.
If to listen to opinion of our scientists, then all Karelian ethnos of the republic can be subdivided into three big groups.
The first is the Karelians of a livvika who are compactly living in Priladozhye in the territory of the Olonets area. Well, except for the village of Mikhaylovskoye, from which to Podporozhya that already in the Lodeynopolsky Region of Leningrad region, is even closer, than to Olonets. By the way, the Olonets area - only in the republic, where actually Karelians - the majority: 63%, 16402 persons. Except Olonets, compact and rather big groups on number the Karelian live in the territory only of two of 16 areas of the republic - Pryazhinsky (7615 people) and Kalevalsky (3820).
The yarn is the center of Karelians of Prionezhya - of buttercups . Except villages of this area (Svyatozero, the Yarn, Vidana), buttercups part live in the Olonets village of Mikhaylovskoye, and also in several villages of the Kondopoga district (the Spassky lip, Yurkostrov, Ussuna).
And the third group - northern (or belomorsky) the Karelians who located in the west of Medvezhyegorsky (padansky or segozersky Karelians), Kalevalsky (Ukhta) and Loukhsky (kestengsky) areas.
Livvikov in Karelia - 40 thousand, buttercups - 5 and actually Karelians - 20.
All these groups differ in the language features which are marked out by our domestic linguists in separate dialects, and Finnish and the majority of western - carried to independent languages. And, probably, it is more correct. Because if to speak about dialects, then how then to call numerous quantity of dialects which are in each of them? For example, at livvik it is possible to allocate vidlitsky, rypushkalsky, nekkulsky, kotkayarvsky and tulemayarvsky dialects. It apart from already “ dead “ syamozersky and vodlozersky. At buttercups which speak on Kondopoga, pryazhinsky and Mikhaylovsk dialects, the same history.
Therefore, most likely - languages. Well, as Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian. Yes, a basis one, but each of them has such features that the neighbor if understands, then - with great difficulty. Even names of the same dishes … Here is how - told that about how Karelians cook a fish soup. So buttercups and northern Karelians call its kalarokk (kalarokka), and a livvika - liyem (liemi).
On nowadays dominating hypothesis, lyudikovskiya (we will not tease domestic philologists) the dialect was created on the basis of medieval Karelian, under considerable influence of related - Veps, also carried to the Finn - an Ugrian language family. Besides the general basis, is present at livvikovsky language, as well as in lyudikovsky, a significant amount of loans from the Veps language, but, besides, also the layer of West Baltic lexicon which is absent in other Karelian languages. Well, and in actually Karelian - the Finnish lexical forms are rather powerful.
And on these, language, features, probably, can draw a conclusion and on why they, Karelians, such different. Distinguishes them not only different names of the same dishes. But also different ways of their preparation. Far and it is not necessary to go. The same fish soup cooked in the north of Karelia both to taste, and on appearance will differ from the is southern - the Karelian little sister.
Different territories, excellent prirodno - climatic conditions, other neighbors. And everything in the sum brings to that, as Karelians different. Also they live - differently. If livvik or buttercups in a log hut - the Russian furnace, then in the north at each furnace surely had a small fire-place. The additional center located in a special niche near the oven mouth and serving both for cooking, and for lighting of the dwelling.
And here “ cockroaches “ practically at all Karelians identical. The pike jaw, for example, and today can be seen at an entrance in many Karelian houses. Charm. Though already and there are a lot of centuries as Karelians are Orthodox Christians …