What is the dirty bomb dangerous by?
For the simplest fireworks are required mix of potassium saltpeter, charcoal and sulfur. In the Middle Ages saltpeter was delivered to Europe from the Arab countries, and there came from China. There flash of mix was treated as merge of a quiet feminine “ yin “ - saltpeter - with an ardent machismo “ Yan “ - sulfur.
Caliphs is the prophet Muhammad`s deputies - encouraged development of science and trade. The Arab merchants traded with China and Western Europe. They delivered “ Chinese snow “ - the purified saltpeter - for physicians. And later Shemseddin Mohammed described firing with use of gas mixture from the Chinese snow.
Then there was a Franciscan monk by the name of Black Bertoldus. He lived in the German Freiburg, was the monk and the alchemist. Some historians claim what this remarkable guy thought up as God`s creations will blow up each other. Once it mixed saltpeter, sulfur, lead and oil, placed mix in the corked pot and began to heat. The pot blew up. Blew up when heating and a copper vessel with the same mix. Later Bertoldus replaced lead and oil with coal powder - it turned out even better! Everything is simple: 40 parts of saltpeter, 20 parts are gray, 5 parts of coal.
Certainly, in the modern world of manufacturing techniques of explosives are not similar to medieval at all. With creation of an atomic, hydrogen and neutron bomb the concept of explosion underwent a certain intrinsic transformation: explosion of dynamite and explosion of a neutron bomb not so same. However, existence of the nuclear weapon for many years was a control factor in the interstate relations and as it is represented, prevented not one armed conflict.
Probability that the hydrogen or atomic bomb will fall into hands of terrorists it is insignificant it is small. The similar plot is suitable for the Hollywood blockbusters more, than for serious reflections.
At the same time essential danger is constituted by a so-called dirty bomb: when usual explosive is mixed with radioactive isotopes. Even there is no need that isotopes were suitable for creation of an atomic bomb, any highly radioactive material suffices. For example, caesium chloride - - it is very simple to spray powder, similar to talc, explosion. And will not seem to anybody a little: scattering of radioactive dust will be on several kilometers. And the modern city cannot almost be cleared of radioactive dust completely.
In medicine more than 300 kinds of radioactive isotopes are used, their activity fluctuates from 5 to 120 curies, and among them there are such silnoradioaktivny isotopes as cobalt - 60 and caesium - 137. In case of emergency use of some radioactive isotopes (for example, americium isotope) in 6 minutes in a two-kilometer zone measures for protection of the population will be required. The main danger is constituted so-called “ hot “ particles, from 20 to 100 microns in size. They are easily carried by wind, and having got into lungs of the person, get stuck there for many years. Pulmonary fabric near such particle is under continuous action of radiation. Mutations of cages and, eventually, a malignization result.
Besides it must be kept in mind that for biological objects dependence “ dose / effect “ - nonlinear and nonthreshold. It means that any, as much as small dose of ionizing radiation causes this or that effect in the person.
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Control of radioactive isotopes in medicine or, for example, for RTG (radiation thermal generators) which are autonomous sources of the electric power and contain a strontium capsule - 90, not so careful, as in rocket strategic forces at all. There is no guarantee that in all countries and in all establishments unauthorized access to similar radioactive materials is excluded. The medical radiological equipment is available worldwide including in underdeveloped countries.
By data the Internet - the " portal; Washington ProFile “ (washprofile. org) is in the USA more than 2 million units of radioactive materials which can be used for creation of a dirty bomb. They are stored on 21 thousand objects. For the last six months it was declared 107 cases of plunders and losses. Radioactive materials are stored in Europe on about 30 thousand objects; at the same time about 70 radioactive sources annually completely disappear.
According to experts, the problem of prevention of use of a dirty bomb (both terrorist groups, and rogue states) is extremely actual. It is only possible to rejoice to the fact that still dirty bomb was not applied. Real and how many - nibud the mankind did not think up yet reliable ways to prevent use of a dirty bomb. Also there is no way more simply, than explosion of a dirty bomb, for creation of mass panic among the population.