Rus Articles Journal

Whose work was studied by Michurin and Vavilov? Luther Byorbank of

on March 7, 1849, 160 years ago, in Lancaster (State of Massachusetts) in a big family of the farmer and manufacturer of Byorbank was born 13 - y the child who was named Luther. The senior children were by then already adult so the kid had enough nurses. Though two bright tendencies of Luther were shown already soon. In - the first, he very much liked to read, and, in - the second, practically from is dark to is dark vanished on the street. The family joked: if Luther of the house, then it always sits with the book in hands and if it is absent - that collects some plants.

The family lived not richly and not poorly. But the father - the Scot by birth, was very hardworking, in something is avaricious, he considered that each person, there are to it 30 or 5 years, has to earn bread on the piece. Vot and Luther not just like that wandered in the field or the wood. During cleaning of a sugar cane he on an equal basis with all carried the cut-down plants and put them in burta and when slightly grew up, began to trust it also a machete.

mother

accustomed To gardening of

But most of all it liked to work in a garden which was grown up by his mother. She was Englishwoman, and in memory of the far homeland put at herself near the house what once grew in her far English childhood. And Luther learned to understand soon cutting of branches, inoculations and other subtleties which help to try to obtain a big crop or magnificent blossoming.

But by six years began to trust Luther more responsible affairs. His father opened several factories on production of pottery and a brick at once, the benefit near a site there were huge reserves of clay. And Luther with the brother who was one few years more senior loaded carts with a brick, harnessed oxen and carried production of factories of the father on neighboring ranches and the cities. When there were no bricks, carried whetstones and boards from saw-mills of Berbank - the father, and even just waste. And often remained to look at how at paper-mill make paper, gunpowder of wood waste. It was fascinating

At nine-year age Luther suggested the father to increase productivity of a cranberry. It was for this purpose necessary to construct a dam. The formed pond froze in the winter so all neighboring children gathered at Byorbank.

Probably, there is no sense to describe school days Luther. That was pleasant to study it not really-. As well as to visit church where the service lasted sometimes till 6 hours in a row. It was very heavy to bright boy to remain sitting on one place so long period

did not want to swallow of Dust...

After leaving school he got a job on factory of the native uncle and continued the inventions. The first got to the woodworking machine which it improved so that labor productivity increased several times. But Luther very quickly understood that wood dust quickly clogs lungs of the working person why workers at factory die in the middle age, without living up to an old age. He did not want such destiny. He decided to become a doctor and sat down for textbooks on human physiology.

Such dashing aside here and there not really - that it were pleasant to neither parents, nor the girlfriend of Luther. They demanded that the young man was defined in the addictions rather. But here a family the trouble trapped: unexpectedly the father died. Two elder brothers right there left a home and moved off in searches of the good luck ingots to California where achieved of rates gold-rush . They called with themselves and Luther, but that not really - that wanted to become a gold prospector, he was attracted more by gardening and plant growing. And he agreed to go to California because the climate of the former residence not really - that was suitable for occupation by selection of plants. Chose one from a set of the settlements of California - Santa - Roza, most likely, from - for names as in those days it was small and quite dirty settlement. But here the earth was rather inexpensive - eventually, Luther managed to buy the whole 17 acres!

Began all very difficult...

As Luther confessed then to

, in a suitcase it had only 10 potatoes of the grade removed by it Byorbank .

Small lyrical digression. Very few people know that the great-grandfather on Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin`s mother Abram Hannibal very much liked to grow up potatoes and were even engaged in its selection. However, Peter the Great`s blackamoor removed issinya - violet grades of potatoes, they would seem to us exotic.

We will return to Byorbank. He did not eat ten potatoes, and put near a hut. And then from year to year okulturivat them, trying to increase in them the content of starch. But on it it was impossible to grow rich - the first that brought in to Luther the good income - removal of early ripe grades of corn and haricot. Besides with the high content of sugar

But it will be later. And the first half a year for Luther were the real test. It starved, several times he had to spend the night in a hen house with those hens whom it was employed to protect. There was a period when he nearly starved, and the old woman - the beggar to whom kind people gave in day a milk mug, bore this mug with milk to the young man, and then they drank this milk for two. But he was sure - the Fate always turns facing the one who is persistent, persistent in whom the strong spirit and mighty belief in the best grew up

of 20 thousand saplings on one breath

At last, it found work: in the next economy the carpenter was necessary. It worked till the evening, and then in the dark pottered with the saplings. It gave all love and tenderness to the girlfriend who remained far to the dumb green friends. The first experiences inspired Byorbank. But a bigger pleasure to it was brought by the expanded fruit plants. And when to it charged to grow up 20 thousand saplings of plum - he managed to cope with a task brilliantly. And until the end of life of discharge remained his most favourite guinea pig it is enough to tell that the selector removed more than hundred new grades including a grade in which there was no firm cover in a stone.

After implementation of this order Byorbank forever forgot that such lack of money. To it farmers not only California, but also other states reached for saplings, creating sometimes long turn. Luther was tireless. In - the first, it was very hardworking, leaving for a dream only few hours. And, in - the second that is not less important for the creative person - he was never afraid to experiment. The joke to tell, only one plum trees in its expanded garden there were about 7 million! And the selector made rejection ruthlessly. Once he told that he burned about 65 thousand hybrid bushes of blackberry, having left no more than fifty for experience continuation. His name, names of its farms (Santa - the Rose and Sevastopol, on the river Russian) became known not only in the district, but also in all country and even over the ocean.

the Cactus without prickles and a walnut without shell...

Here only the small list of the fact that made Berbank for mankind: plum without stone, plumkot (a plum hybrid with an apricot), the cactus without prickles yielding tasty fruits and a valuable forage to cattle, the edible dwarfish chestnut bearing fruits on the second year of life, a walnut with thin as paper, a shell, a quince with a pineapple smell, white blackberry, blackberry without thorns, sweet onions with bulbs weighing more than 1 kg, a fragrant dahlia, blue poppy, huge Amaryllises with flowers to 30 cm in the diameter.

Kliment Arkadyevich Timiryazev, Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin, Nikolay Ivanovich Vavilov - can by the right consider themselves as successors of business of Luther of Byorbank. They very attentively studied works, written by Byorbank, it as My methods and experiences in 12 volumes, 1914 - 1915); How to train plants to work for the person in 8 volumes, 1921), Creation of plants for the person in 1907. Nikolay Vavilov was in Santa - Roza where was simply it is struck that scope with which Byorbank makes the experiments. Timiryazev called it the worker - the wonder-worker . In any case selectors! Before it Jack London, Thomas Edison and Henry Ford took off a hat

Luther Byorbank lived long life. He died at himself in Santa - Roza on April 11, 1926, a month later after noted the 80 - the anniversary. And that is especially offensive: its works in America, by and large, did not gain due development, many grades removed by it are lost or forgotten