“ Foolish “ awards: to whom and for what they were given?
Jokers, clowns, and simply - clowns. At the yards of the Russian tsars they were so popular, as well as at the yards of the European monarchs. Most often in clowns the grandees who were guilty before sovereigns went. And the order " is frequent; to assume buffoonery “ meant “ part-time job “.
The writer Lev Berdnikov noted that at court of Peter the Great, for example, “ regular poteshnik “ who would fulfill exclusively clownish duties, it did not appear at all: “ the clownish prince - the Caesar F. Yu. Romodanovsky at the same time was the chief of Preobrazhenskoye of the order; the prince - the father N. M. Zotov had a rank of the valid privy councilor and a title of count; buffoonery … was esteemed as some kind of monarchic service “.
For its diligent execution tsars quite often favored court animators - inventors monetary gifts yes land grounds. For especially caused a stir even special awards established. It is known that the same Pyotr awarded Yu. F. Shakhovsky of Judas`s award, having samolichno for such a case thought up it. the Queen with trite inquiries
But the tsar - the reformer surpassed
, perhaps, in an ingenuity the empress Anna Ioannovna. For the first time came to its mind to make a humorous award of St. Benedetto the parody to one of the most honorary state rewards. Externally it was almost exact copy of an award of St. Alexander Nevsky: a small cross on a red tape. But to whom and for what the monarchess handed this award?
Those who read I. I. Lazhechnikov`s novel “ Ice house “ for certain gained an impression about it “ sense of humour “: Anna Ioannovna was entertained more by frank platitudes and wild tricks from clowns, than original wit. From desire please it they could put up several times in the course of the day squabbles, fights, to drag each other for hair and to award with punches. Looking at these fights, the empress had fun with all the heart and, probably, reduced stress caused by incessant zeals about the benefit of the state. She quite often ordered to clowns to strip to the skin, take seat on bast baskets with eggs and to crow. It was its favourite entertainment. Other option: to put clowns in a row and to cane them on legs until all did not fall.
Many court jolliers with grief remembered the emperor Peter I appreciating in each of them first of all ability “ to cut plain truth “ to deride defects of grandees. In “ Komed - a klaba “ from Anna Ioannovna the indestructible rule worked: “ Sovereigns behind fun resort to clowns, and mind of the stranger it is not necessary for them “. In other words, from clowns the creative in " style was required; silly and ridiculously “. As it is paradoxical, but St. Benedetto`s award was received not by fools, and those whose mind and resourcefulness were out of competition. Among others - Yang of Lacoste (in some mentions - Jan D`Akosta) and Adamk Pedrillo`s . They amused Pyotr in due time, from them also Anna did not turn away.
Draw as destiny
Is symbolical that the service of Italian Pietro Mira at court of the Russian empress began on April 1, 1732 in the April Fools` Day. Whom how not the fool, he should consist at Her Majesty now? If in clowns to Peter the Great it got absolutely still the young man, then to Anna Ioannovna - the elderly, worldly-wise rascal. About where it vanished during the period “ from “ and “ to “ there is no mention.
Among the court nobility the Italian representations in a genre of the commedia dell`arte had success. Pietro Mira played in them a role of the character by the name of Petrillo. And the dissonant pseudonym “ Adamka Pedrillo “ he was obliged to exclusively Russian public. It is necessary to tell that contrary to an obscene nickname of Pedrillo did not treat perverts. Adamka had a wife. Their marriage did not pull in any way on is exemplary - indicative, the hysterical and incorrect spouse spoiled Pietro many nerves, but he protected a family and everywhere carried it for himself.
Stories about some of its tricks reached and up to now. About the goat homeland, for example, when he declared that he is married to a goat, and then magnificently celebrated birth “ firstborn “ - kid. Or about “ arrival “ on being an office - the minister A. P. Volynsky: Pedrillo in the face of all beau monde butted it the head in a stomach. A fight was started in Anna Ioannovna`s taste, and that did not fail to praise Adamka for bravery. Also it differed in shulersky abilities thanks to which managed to increase the fortune several times. Even the empress charged to it to keep for herself bank.
Nevertheless, did not include in the plans of the aging Italian to finish the days in others country. Having hammered together the decent capital, he returned home and opened a tavern. To humorous craft after that it did not come back any more.
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread
“ Well what I, in your opinion, have to make with it? He is a fool! “ - so Yana to Lacoste still the emperor Peter the Great in response to numerous complaints of court characterized . The Jew by origin, Lacoste even with the sovereign turned out on a good footing and called him the godfather. What to speak about an imperial environment: it was constant object of its venomous sneers. All boyars that, on their understanding, only he and nobody else inspired the sovereign on a sostriganiye of antiquated beards and shortening of caftans hated and were afraid of Jan. In any case inspired - itself together with Pyotr dexterously was active scissors, sounding process by perfect humourous catchphrases.
Appointed funs for the sake of Pyotr Alekseevich to Lacoste “ king of Samoyeds “. The national suit of the northern tribe became a uniform of the clown, and Jan on feasts and festivals always accompanied by same picturesque " appeared; suites “. Subsequently the empress Anna adoring ethnic exotic enjoined to drive about Lacoste across St. Petersburg on cervine teams.
He never was at a loss for a word. When at Lakosta someone from courtiers demanded not to play the fool, that shrugged shoulders: “ Yes not I to one these am engaged - you too. Only for various reasons: I have a lack of money, and at you - in mind “.
When asked it whether he at which at ship-wrecks the grandfather and the father died is afraid, to go to voyages, Lacoste inquired at curious where their ancestors died. It was answered: “ Houses, in a bed “. “ Well, and how you are not afraid to go to bed every night now? “ - Jan finished.
And here other famous clown - to Ivan Balakirev , apparently, did not get humorous awards, despite of the fact that it did the “ foolish “ to a pit in parallel with Pedrillo and Lakosta. In “ Ice house “ Lazhechnikova it is possible to read the following: “ Old merits it are not remembered. Foreign clowns, Lacoste and Pedrillo, are distinguished by some badges in a buttonhole, under the name of Benedetto`s awards actually for them and founded. And it, the favourite clown of Peter the Great, has no this badge and wears the caftan received in the twenties “ …
Balakirev worried in vain. Regentsha is the ruler Anna Leopoldovna who replaced in 1740 on the Russian throne Anna Ioannovna, condemned the predecessor for humiliation of human dignity of imperial jolliers. She awarded them with generous gifts and released wherever one wishes. “ Foolish “ more nobody established awards in Russia since that moment.