How the maid of honor of the imperial yard Yulia Danzas appeared on the Solovki?
of Yuli Danzas was born on April 26 (on May 9), 1879 in a family of the diplomat of the Russian mission Nikolay Karlovic Danzas in Athens. Yulia Danzas was known not only as the noblewoman of the well-known French sort, but also as the grandniece of Konstantin Karlovic Danzas, the second on the duel A. Pushkin with Zh. Dantes costing to the poet life. On the maternal line of Danzasa belonged to a noble Greek family - Argiropolo.
When Yulia was 8 years old, and to her brother Yakov - 12, in a family the father died. Their mother, Evfrosinya Emmanuilovn, after death of the husband moved with children to a manor Danzasov to the Kharkiv province, and then moved to St. Petersburg. After the termination of a gymnasium 16 - the summer daughter mother sent to Paris, to one of universities of Sorbonne where Yulia studied philosophy and psychology.
In France Yulia Danzas came under influence of philosophers F. Nietzsche and A. Schopenhauer. She was fond of Theosophy, became the doctor of philosophy. In it the literary talent was early shown. Having returned to Russia, Danzas cooperated with the " newspaper; Suburbs of Russia “ wrote articles to the collection “ Inquiries of thought “. Yulia Nikolaevna signed articles with the pseudonym “ Yury Nikolaev “.
She sharply and openly opposed socialist ideas. A lot of noise was caused by Yulia`s book “ Searching behind the Deity “ where she stated the theory of reunion of the world and a deity. M. Gorky became interested in this book, for many years it was stored with his marks in a private library. Soon Danzas`s acquaintance to M. Gorky took place. That it will receive continuation, then none of them knew …
Uncommon mind of Danzas, independence of its judgments and eminence of an origin did not remain unnoticed in the highest circles of St. Petersburg. The last empress of Russia Aleksandra Fiodorovna suggested Yulia Nikolaevna to be engaged together with it in charity. Danzas agreed. So, in 28 years it became stats - the empress`s maid of honor. But soon life in the palace becomes intolerable for Danzas. The atmosphere reigning there is unclear and unpleasant for it. Yulia Nikolaevna is irritated by spiritualistic sessions, wanderers “ Mitki “ and “ Mashka “ who can be met in Aleksandra Fiodorovna`s rooms. And, above all - Rasputin … When World War I began
, the empress wanted to submit the office cases to Danzas, but that refused. Yulia Nikolaevna resolved to go to the front. At first she had to manage a field warehouse of Society of the Red Cross 10 - y armies, then she went the volunteer to the Cossack regiment, participated in military operations, is awarded by the St George`s Cross. After February revolution Danzas returned to Petrograd. She right there writes the article “ National suicide “ in which accuses the intellectuals of national accident.
In the period of revolutionary whirl of Yuli Danzas went to work in Public library. Its successful service was promoted by knowledge of 9 languages. But uneasy nature of Danzas demanded bigger. In parallel it begins teaching work at psychoneurological institute. Besides, it, as before, without changing the interests, becomes the member of several philosophical societies at once. In 1920 M. Gorky offered it work in the House of scientists of Petrograd. At one of its meetings Danzas got acquainted with the head of the Russian Catholics, the father Leonid (Leonid Fedorov). Leonid Ivanovich had a good education and had the gift of belief. Danzas, being under impression of his brilliant speech about the future of Russia, decided to adopt Catholicism.
By means of Fedorova Yulia Nikolaevna created a Catholic community and chose for itself the conventual`s life. From now on it has a new name - Iustina. The community existed only one year. In 1923 Danzas, as well as all members of a community, was arrested for creation “ counterrevolutionary “ the organizations it is also sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment. As the academician, the scientist Dmitry Sergeyevich Likhachev who in the same years was in camp wrote then, - “ she looked for a firm spiritual support, and pleased to the Solovki “.
However to “ acquaintances “ with the Solovki camp, 44 - summer Danzas spent 5 years in prisons of Siberia. Together with the next party of prisoners Danzas arrived to the Solovetsky Islands in the spring of 1928, suffering from a scurvy. Seeing her physical sufferings, someone from women interceded for it: “ It believer. Place it with them “. But Danzas never was “ quiet “ also did not get on among sisters. Somehow the father Leonid came, wanted to confess before it, called himself guilty what she answered that she does not see any fault in his acts. They also left it … Active Danzas even in this place turned out
demanded. It was determined by the accountant, and at the same time and the librarian in an institution with the loud name “ Museum of society of study of local lore “. However he reminded a warehouse of the things which escaped in revolutionary revolutions. It was necessary for Yulia Danzas all utensils which are available here - icons, vessels, books, piles of papers, the decayed things of the former prisoners - to put in order, to make the inventory and to make the catalog. In “ Museum “ lectures were often given. Danzas was wanted to be acquainted to “ to antireligious work “ but she with frankness peculiar to it flatly refused.
On the Solovki Yulia got acquainted with many interesting people. D. S. Likhachev remembered that in department which was engaged in selection of juvenile criminals in labor colonies Danzas communicated with the philosopher Alexander Meyer, the former imperial prosecutor Alexander Kolosov, teachers of teacher`s college of Herzen Ksenia Polovtseva, Alexander Sukhov and other former representatives of the St. Petersburg intellectuals. On memoirs of contemporaries, Yulia Nikolaevna did not avoid people around, did not show arrogance and neglect to cellmates. Nobody saw her tears, heard complaints. Even in this hell in it it was guessed last, something bright and sublime. It appeared in a look, words, gestures.
At the beginning of 1931 the most part of prisoners was sent for Belomoro`s construction - the Baltic channel. Among them there was also Danzas who was directed to work in office. All women were placed in a dark hangar with a window and an oven, plank beds in two tiers. “ Wit “ some prisoners to the former maid of honor did not make success. Danzas had the internal force and self-control - it is and rescued her from humiliations. In January, 1932 the message on an early release of Yulia Nikolaevna, for a year before the term of her conclusion came. As then Danzas learned, her brother Yakov Nikolaevich living in Germany strove on release. Also M. Gorky appreciating Danzas as the writer and the scientist petitioned.
After release Yulia Nikolaevna met Gorky. He suggested it to be engaged in translation activity. She promised to think. But, according to the researcher of the biography Yulia Danzas of the journalist Igor Kuznetsov, Gorky “ read “ in the opinion of this 53 - the summer woman desire to immediately leave the country. At parting he addressed the interlocutor: “ Only I ask you - do not write anything about the Solovki with anybody you speak about it … “ It is known that Danzas did not keep this promise, having written two books about the Solovki in French and one in Russian subsequently.
Waiting for departure to Germany as D. S. Likhachev wrote, living in Leningrad, Yulia Danzas came to his parents. It easily rose by the fifth floor, was fashionably dressed, in a hat slightly aslant. To it her bright blue eyes were remembered. Subsequently abroad it appeared in society dressed by the nun, the aristocrat, always somewhere hurrying on affairs, occupied scientific and the journalist with work.
Yulia Nikolaevna Danzas died on April 13, 1942, at the age of 63 years. It is buried in Rome where spent the last years of life.