How secret became obvious or What such X - beams?
are familiar to All of us light advertizing tubes. In them there is a rarefied gas which begins to shine if to connect voltage to a tube.
At the end of the 18th century this phenomenon was only investigated by scientists, and laboratory tubes were not similar to lamps familiar to us at all. It were puzatenky glass cylinders in which from two parties metal pins - electrodes were sealed.
It was noticed that if from a cylinder to pump out almost all gas, then its luminescence disappears, but glass about that electrode to which it is connected " begins to shine; plus “ tension. As it became clear later, glass shines (or as speak, fluoresces) under blows of the smallest charged particles - electrons. Under the influence of tension they escape from metal of a negative electrode and are attracted to positive. At the same time they disperse to huge speeds and “ fire “ an electrode and glass, forcing it to radiate light.
And now there is a little history. On November 8, 1895 Wilhelm Konrad Rentgen , professor of Vyurtsburgsky university of Germany, was going to investigate some processes when passing current through the rarefied gases. There was an everyday laboratory work. Nothing foretold neither special disappointments, nor opening. Rentgen accurately covered a cylinder with dense black paper from all directions and gave tension. And suddenly … What is it?
From where this light proceeds? It is quite possible that Rentgen absolutely instinctively ran a hand between a tube and the special screen, trying to understand from what party mysterious light falls. And at the same moment he saw a shadow of the hand on the screen. But the hand was not lit and felt nothing. Was it seems that from a tube some invisible beams proceed. Having passed through paper and air, they - that also cause a screen covering luminescence.
Invisible and pervasive beams! Incredibly! Perhaps, Rentgen (there is no mention about these trifles) moved with fingers in front of the screen and examined a shadow. On it phalanx bones, more dark, than muscles were obviously excreted. “ No, with conclusions it is impossible to hurry! “ - Rentgen solved and it was literally locked in the laboratory, studying the mysterious phenomena. Not to distract, it did not go home though its apartment was located the floor below. Even the food to it was brought in laboratory.
He was puzzled and, to tell the truth, did not represent even what benefit can be derived from this opening. This bewilderment affected also the choice of the name for strange beams. Rentgen called them “ Õ - beams “.
In seven weeks Rentgen transferred the short message which was called " for publication; About a new type of beams “. “ Õ - beams “ very quickly became very fashionable. In these beams all began to do pictures who only had gas-discharge tubes.
Conjurers in the small cities with an air of mystery showed as they inexplicably give on the photographic plates which are reliably hided in black paper, distinct images of all stones of a hand. Clowns in myuzik - halls in eager rivalry made jokes as dexterously it is possible with the help of these surprising beams to count coins in others purses becoming suddenly some wonderfully as if transparent.
Physicians became interested in opening. For them X-rays were deep sight and were useful for diagnosis of many diseases. Especially irreplaceable they became at treatment of changes.
Isn`t that so, can seem that Rentgen opened “ the “ beams incidentally? By the way, and some of his contemporaries considered. However casual supervision can make everyone. But from supervision to a presentiment that in it there is something considerable, - a big step. And a bigger step from a presentiment to clear scientific knowledge, before opening.
What occurs in a tube? From where these beams undertake? As Rentgen considered and confirmed researches of other scientists, they proceed from that electrode which is bombarded by electrons, being born at blows of electrons about metal.
In the next years it was established that X-rays represent the same electromagnetic oscillations, as well as visible light, only with lengths of waves of thousands times smaller. Such sizes are comparable already with distances between atoms in substances. It also explains their high penetration.
Now rentgenova beams are applied everywhere: both in medicine, and in equipment. They awakened several new branches of science to life: X-ray analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray therapy. They gave new most interesting methods of scientific research to historians and archeologists. Having studied thousands of x-ray pictures, the Soviet scientist M. M. Gerasimov opened the regularities allowing to restore on bones of a skull shape long ago of the died people. Thanks to it we had an opportunity own eyes to see how the tsar of Scythians Skilur, Timur, Yaroslav the Wise, Andrey Bogolyubsky, Ulugbek, Schiller, the remarkable naval commander admiral Ushakov looked.
And wonderful beams by right in the name hold in remembrance the great scientist who presented the opening to mankind new, unusual “ sight “.