Where it now, Mother of the cities of Russians?
Well, by itself, not in Kiev. How it is possible? Here present, we take the mummy - that lyubimenky for breasts and we begin to shake her as this … How it? A fruit-tree from five letters, with “ r “ somewhere in the middle … Pear! Here, we take it and … - Pay
for gas, such - that … Expensive and adored!
And all Europe looks at us and is distressed to what youth modern … No, earlier at all not that was …
- And not the mummy it to us absolutely. So, with a side to a heat of the sun. Distant relative. Not the relative absolutely …
- And - aa … Well, then it is fine, shake.
So it is impossible in any way that in Kiev … But. On the other hand. How without roditelev - that? What we, riff-raff what homeless? Too, it seems as, it is impossible.
And time is impossible, but there is a strong wish … And there is a wish? There is a wish, there is a wish … Means, it is possible!
What, who not in courses? How? Still on October 9, 2002 the President signed our Decree on celebration of anniversary of the first capital of Russia … Seven years soon, as we at “ to mother “! And so - that it already with 753 - go works years with it.
All precisely, and no mistake can be. Archeologists, they are such … Quirky children. Dug out a log, sawed a usual two-handled saw … Vzhik - vzhik … Here to you - a cut fresh, on it - annual rings circles concentric from the seryodka. And at them, these archeologists, - plates special. Looked at a log, in plates glanced … Precisely. Here cut and in 753 - m for construction used to year. And deception any. Pure science. The Dendrokhronologichesky method is called.
Sawed where? And - aa … So in Old Ladoga! So small settlement. It is slightly more than two thousand inhabitants. If from Murmansk to go south and to jump with M18 “ " Coca; on M10 C. - St. Petersburg - Moscow then after Syasstroy as slip the bridge through Volkhov, so on the left, to Kirishi, it is necessary to curtail.
And so … As turned left, it is direct almost at once, to the firstborn of the Soviet plan of general electrification (GOELRO) - the Volkhov hydroelectric power station - and Old Ladoga . However, the people there seldom brake. If only who takes notice of towers of the Old Ladoga fortress …
A in vain, in vain … Is that in the settlement to look at. And St. John the Baptist Church that on the Malyshevy mountain. And Nikolsky man`s monastery. And - Uspensky female near … Yes it is full! Already in the 12th century when Ladoga also Old - that was not, there were in it six stone temples painted with frescos! And today … Both in the settlement, and in close proximity to it, more than 150 monuments history and architecture of the VIII-XIX centuries remained.
Therefore if to stop in the settlement then for couple of days. Well, and if it is a pity for very holiday time … All the same - brake. Go out of the car, warm up legs, light and look around. Here it … That place, from where “ the Russian land " is and went; …
It is Old Ladoga now - the small settlement in the place of a confluence with Volkhov of the river of Ladozhki. And in the ancient time it was the large European city standing on one of the most recovered trade intersections of that time. And if about a way “ from the Varangian in Greeks “ many of us heard something, about another, “ from the Varangian in Arabs “ the general public knows much less. And it, perhaps, was more important “ Greek “.
The matter is that the silver in Europe then was not. And in 1874 - 75 in the field at the village of Knyashchina that all in some verst from Old Ladoga, local peasants were engaged in the usual thing. Plowed. I … Neither dream, nor spirit, as … Bang … And plows - that … Not only the earth is lifted, but also … At once three treasures. Ancient silver coins.
Generally as those values got to the Archaeological commission of St. Petersburg, scientists not just gasped. They did not believe the eyes. It turned out that all coins are dated the end of the VIII-IX centuries. Still the legendary prince Rurik in Russia was not. And coins … Here they. Yes not simple. In total - silver are also rapped out not where - nibud, and on mints of the Arab caliphate. In Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia.
At different times seven treasures and more than 30 silver coins separately are found in vicinities of Old Ladoga. Only 467 Arab dirhems.
And a small chest, as usual, it is very simple... Ladoga of that time acted as a link in a chain the North Sea - Baltic - Neva - Ladoga - Volkhov and further … Or on the South, through the lake Ilmen and Lovat, to Smolensk and Kiev, and across Dnieper and the Black Sea - to Byzantium. Or on the East, Volga and the Caspian Sea - to the Arab caliphate.
Exactly there the silver coin - kufichesky dirhem was minted small, weighing 2,5 grams. And, in view of lack in Europe of the silver, it became a universal equivalent for all European countries of that time. Without it trade if did not rise, then would be seriously complicated. Here also carried through Ladoga, from the West on the East, slaves and fur. Well, and so, for the range, amber, jewelry, the weapon, chernoloshchyony Frisian jugs. And back - a horse harness, ware, a beads. But the main thing - silver.
By some estimates of modern historians the annual turnover of silver to the Baltic Europe till the 10th century made 25 million of Central Asia (!) dirhems. Yes, the way was not close, to 7 thousand kilometers only in one party, but … The game was worth the candle! The profit, at successful combination of circumstances, reached one thousand percent. And it is tempting figure. Also there were caravans. And they could not pass Ladoga in any way.
The Slavs who came to these places from the South and strongly saddled the mouth of Volkhov perfectly understood it. Ladoga became an important link in a chain of the early medieval trade cities of Baltic. Such as Label, Hedebyu, Volin, Truzo. The advantageous position of Ladoga was explained by the fact that Volkhov, Ladoga and Neva gave vent to sea and river transport communications. From here it was possible to go as on the West, the South or the East, and on the North. Exactly there, at forest, the Finn - the Ugrian people, Slavs exchanged the furs so necessary for acquisition of the Arab silver. And all this combined led to the fact that by 830 in this ancient city of southern Priladozhya and around it there was a steady social education which soon became Russia, habitual for us.
But … Is not present in the world of stability. It is absent now, was not and then. Volkhov, these gate on the East, were tempting not only for Slavs. Ladoga - the rich city, so - good production on which there are always hunters. And in 839 or 840 the city was reduced by allied army of several Scandinavian yarl to ashes. However, Scandinavians did not have enough forces to retain this edge. In several years the Slovenian soldiers in the union from the Finn - Ugrian tribes fight off them Ladoga and expel uninvited guests for the sea.
And after that …
Here us is waited by one historical riddle . After exile of newcomers there is a civil strife. Who with whom was at war, so still and not clearly. But long it could not proceed. It was necessary to solve a problem. And even not one. Besides the civil strife termination, the military force having an opportunity to resist to expansion of Scandinavians or better still, capable to turn them into allies was necessary.
Ladoga not only was interested in the termination of contentions. It, and only it, had money to employ the prince with a team. That he governed “ under the law and justice “.
And on the historical arena Rurik appeared . About what as very important and deserving attention, note our chronicles. Year 862. “ And Cyd Rurik, oldest in Ladoz, “.
Here so Ladoga became the capital . The first. It then were Ryurikovo the ancient settlement on Ilmen, Novgorod, Kiev, Tver … All of them were then. At first was - Ladoga. From it went … And other cities Russian. And other capitals.