Rus Articles Journal

What holiday is celebrated, seriously, 1 - go April? World day of birds!

Soon guests to you will gather,

How many nests ponavt, - look!

That for sounds, for songs will pour down

Day - densky, all night long!

(I. Nikitin)

Every morning in the spring, only the sun will ascend and slightly will warm a roof, in our house, especially in a drawing room, begins bird`s conversation and singing . And with a small break, probably, for the bird`s affairs and cares, hubbub the whole day, before twilight lasts, calming down, again amplifying. When I only lodged in the house at the son, could not understand from where there are such pure sounds - as though birds absolutely nearby. Audibility - that in the American houses absolute! The sound went from a fireplace. I will knock on a lattice - cease to sing, in a few minutes peresvistyvatsya again. We do not use a fireplace, at least, for three winters never heated. And here birds - I do not even know what sort these birds (I am not an ornithologist, especially I do not understand birds and I cannot make out plainly - fly quickly) chose a chimney pipe and every spring arrange over it a nest. We got used already to their continuous singing and when in the oseena - the winter season comes a pause, even as - as if something is missing. So we have all bases to celebrate the World day of birds , to arrange them an entertainment, and let them sing to us on pleasure.

This quite serious holiday is celebrated by 1 - go April and coincides with April Fools` Day and various draws, but there was it much earlier, more than hundred years ago. The world day of birds is determined in 1906 when the International convention on protection of birds was signed. Russia joined this convention in 1927, but began to celebrate the Day of birds since 1918. Though a holiday for Russia not so new, tradition to show care of birds arose at us davny in every spring - long ago.

In church calendars there is such holiday - Saint Gerasim, called as Gerasim is a grachevnik , it is noted on March 17, in honor of an arrival of the first rooks. Rooks were always a symbol of the beginning of spring, remember A. K. Savrasov`s picture Rooks flied ? Or the song which was sung once by children`s chorus of All-Union radio: Rooks flied, rooks flied, on wings brought spring! . There is also a proverb - The Rook on the mountain... spring outside .

A on March 22 one more bird`s day - Day of Forty martyrs Sevastiysky when in Russia in houses baked special ceremonial cookies - larks and kulichok as if inviting birds to come back to the native land. With these larks children ran down the street and shouted - kept saying: Larks, zhavoronochka! You bring to us Spring - a krasna, the sun, a snug home . I remember from the early childhood too that the grandmother baked from fresh rye stiff, not fancy pastry small pecheniyets in the form of birdies. They were very firm, but we crackled them with pleasure, and it is obligatory, despite military hungry time, at least 2 - 3 birdies took out on the street, and mother pinned them on branches of the bird cherry standing at the house. In the spring, to these to bird`s days it is accepted to build and hang out nesting boxes. For orthodox holiday of the Annunciation which is always celebrated on April 7, in Russia long since existed custom to set free songbirds from cages which bought in the markets, in Moscow, for example, in Okhotny Ryad in advance. The peasants who were engaged in catching of birds had an opportunity to earn a little.

On Earth there are about ten thousand bird species. They can be met and it is high in mountains and on bogs, in the ice Arctic and in waterless sand of deserts, and over boundless open spaces of the ocean. Unlike the mammals who are often leading very reserved life, birds always near us. They please us with prompt, easy flight, beautiful singing, various coloring of plumage and huge benefit which is brought to the nature and people. Without them our planet would be empty.

There are birds absolutely tiny, for example of a humming-bird - the bee living in Cuba is powerful only 1,6 grams, and 5,7 cm in size. Who was in the Zoological museum of St. Petersburg, that saw a magnificent collection of effigies of different types of a humming-bird. The biggest of not flying birds - the African ostrich , its growth reaches 270 cm, and it weighs to 175 kg. It even began to be parted now on farms far outside Africa. Among flying predatory the largest and heavy the Andean condor , capable to carry away in claws of a calf is considered . Its weight reaches 12 kg, and wingspan 3 meters. Though Americans claim that the male of the Californian condor whose effigy is stored in the Californian academy of Sciences in Los - Andzheles, weighed during lifetime of 14,1 kg.

From the fact that birds always lived and live near people, and sometimes are defenseless before invasion of the person, their number and a variety constantly decreases. For the last 500 years in the world more than 150 bird species disappeared, now under the threat of disappearance there are more than 1200 types, and about 200 have critically low number. One of the main reasons of decrease in number of birds and their disappearance is the deforestation connected with agricultural land development, such as in Brazil and Indonesia. Very much also other factors influence: wildfires, hunting, catching and trade in exotic types, installation of new types, general environmental pollution.

So, forever disappeared: a surprising bird the dodo, a wingless auk, the wandering pigeon . History of disappearance of the wandering pigeon who was before the beginning of the 19th century, according to Wikipedia, " is especially interesting; one of the most widespread birds on Earth whose total was estimated at 3 - 5 billion individuals . Especially much they were in the USA. Unfortunately, people too fell in love with meat of these birds. And less, than in 100 years destroyed all population. As the same Wikipedia " reports; last time the wandering pigeon in the wild nature was found in 1899. The last pigeon of Mart (Martha) died in a zoo of Cincinnati (USA) on September 1, 1914

only 20 redlegged ibises and that in bondage, 10 copies of not flying New Zealand of an owl`s parrot Remained . Now in nature exist only several of the Californian condors , grown up in bondage and let out in 1992. It is included in the Red List of the International union of conservation Guatemalan kvezat - a sacred bird of the Maya and Aztecs.

In the territory of Russia about 700 species of birds live, from them more than 100 are included in Russian Red List . In this list such as: a white seagull, the inhabitant of the Arctic and the companion of a polar bear, a Central Russian white partridge, a little duck - tangerine, beloshchyoky and krasnozoby brents, a tundra or small swan, sea eagle - belokhvost, a skopa, the golden eagle, a gyrfalcon, a gray crane and a white crane - a white crane, bearded neyasyt, gray sorokonut, a fish eagle owl and many other types.

Of course, the ecological, nature protection organizations do for preservation and restoration of number of birds much, special ornithological wildlife areas almost worldwide are created. One of successful examples - restoration of number of a white-headed sea eagle , a bird of prey from family hawk, being a symbol of the USA and the main element on the country coat of arms. On restoration of population 40 years left, and now the white-headed sea eagle is brought from the list of rare disappearing birds, their number reached 20 thousand.

Let`s make thrifty use of our loyal friends and satellites - birds!