How divided the island Daman? The victims of the country of mankurts of
We remained a little -
We yes our pain …
(Bulat Okudzhava) of
B of one of the last " broadcasts; The cleverest “ (which charming Tina Kandelaki conducts) it became clear that not all participants of it “ top show “ know who such Konstantin Rokossovsky. What to tell about the events, less noticeable here, than the last World war. As the Poet used to say: “ That`s all - few years, will also be erased your trace. The world is eternal, light is eternal, there is no imperishable memory -. Unless memory is necessary? Memory is simply ridiculous! Memory is even terrible if it is eternal “.
“ Hunveybina “ “ tszaofan “ “ Xinhua “ “ Mao`s quotation collection “ “ Daman “ … Who remembers the events not so remote on time from today now? Unless their direct participants. The set of subjects for the press and TV in the first days of March is usually standard. 40 - summer prescription hardly anyone from mass media will pay to events due attention. And it is vain - the country which people badly imagine the history, it is doomed to its repetition.
On March 2, 1969, meanwhile, there was the FIRST armed conflict of two socialist powers at the level of ARMY DIVISIONS - fight on the island Daman on sovetsko - the Chinese border. Fight, which homebrew “ historians “ nearly 40 years presented as “ border conflict “ and in which active Soviet armed forces it was told about participation or casually, or it was held back at all.
The island Daman (Zhenbao - dao - “ Precious “) being a part of Pozharsky district of Primorsky Krai, is from the Chinese side of the main bed of the river Ussuri. The island received the Russian name in 1888 during a preparatory work at construction of the Trans-Siberian railway line. The engineer - puteets Stanislav Damansky died in these parts during a storm, being transported by the boat through the river Ussuri. His body was found near an anonymous island to which named the dead.
Its sizes make 1500 - 1800 m from the North on the South and 600 - 700 m from the West on the East (the area less than 1 km 2 ). Any economic value Damansky was never of the island as in the period of floods it almost completely disappeared under water. Passing rossiysko - the Chinese border in the territory of modern Primorsky Krai was established by numerous legal acts - in particular, the Nerchinsk contract of 1689, Burinsky and Kyakhtinsky treatises of 1727, the Aygunsky contract of 1858. the Beijing treatise of 1860 and the contractual act of 1911
According to the international practice, lines between the states are drawn on the CHANNEL of the river, however from - for weaknesses of China the Russian Empire could achieve carrying out border on the river Ussuri on the Chinese coast. As a result all islands on it were at first the Russian, and then Soviet territories. After formation of People`s Republic of China the similar situation remained and first did not disturb the relations of two countries. Their deterioration began at the end of 1950 - x when the People`s Republic of China, seeking to growth of the international influence, entered the conflict with Taiwan (1958) and participated in local boundary war with India (1962) Then there was a question of revision of borders with the Soviet Union which leadership was ready to go to it. In 1964 the consultation concerning border which ended without results was held. After “ Prague spring “ 1968 when the authorities of the People`s Republic of China declared that the USSR followed a way “ socialist imperialism “ “ revisionism “ etc., tension between the states was sharply fueled, and Chinese for many years stopped being ours “ brothers for ever “. At the end of 1960 - x on 4 380 km sovetsko - the Chinese border forces numbering 658 000 of the Soviet and 814 000 Chinese soldiers were deployed.
The situation near the island Damansky was heated since the beginning of 1960 - x. If to trust statements of the Soviet party, groups of civilians and military personnel of the People`s Republic of China systematically broke at this time a frontier regime and came to the Soviet territory from where every time were turned out by frontier guards without use of weapons. And, if first on the territory of the USSR only the peasants who were engaged in preparation of hay and a pasture of cattle came, then soon enough they were replaced by other public armed “ red books “ and subsequently and more serious weapon. The number of provocations increased in a geometrical progression: if in their 1960 there were about 100, then in 1962 - already more than 5000. Then assaults of hunveybin on boundary patrols began to be committed. The account to similar events went already on thousands, and was involved in each of them to several hundred people.
Shortly before the first armed conflict on Damansky, on January 4, 1969, on the island Kirkinsky (Qiliqin - dao) carried out the Chinese provocation with participation more than 500 people. Here what, in particular, wrote about this collision on pages of the " magazine; Homeland “ (No. 10 for 2004, “ Damansky: a look through the Soviet sight “) one of participants of those events, the veteran of a border service, the Hero of the Soviet Union the general - the lieutenant Vitaly Bubenin (those years the lieutenant): “ Three hundred green peak-caps Resisted to Chinese at most - the motor-maneuverable group managed to approach us. In half an hour of hand-to-hand fight I understood that the bowl of scales slowly but surely inclines on the party of the opponent. It was necessary to rescue a situation. Having run up to the armored personnel carrier, I ordered to the mechanic rassech crowd. “ In the same place people “ - the driver looked at me. “ And you do not look - move levers, and all “. Having jumped on armor, I closed to the HUMANIST viewing cracks and began to order: “ right “ “ to the left “ … When we were developed, I saw that on snow four Chinese remained to lie. The others, without waiting for continuation, rushed on other coast “.
I do not undertake to give an assessment to actions of the commander who resolutely stopped “ humane “ rush of the driver of the armored personnel carrier - it is possible, do not give it such order, the victims would be much more, but the fact remains - officially recognized first killed in anticipation of large armed conflict between troops of the USSR and the People`s Republic of China were from the CHINESE side. However, there are also rumors about “ whole outposts “ on our party, allegedly completely cut out by Chinese who it is not possible to check yet. The subsequent events completely confirmed the immutable rule: when governors among themselves cannot agree, soldiers should pay off. So was at all times and, alas, takes place today.
On the night of March 2, 1969 to 300 Chinese servicemen landed on the island Damansky and equipped well disguised weapon emplacements there. Reserves, armories and group of artillery support (recoilless tools and mortars) were concentrated on the left bank of the river of Ussuri, besides, from the Chinese side. Command of this action within the operation “ Punishment “ it was carried out by the deputy commander Shenyansky military district of Xiao Cunfu.
The next morning the group of frontier guards which left towards to violators headed by the chief of the frontier post “ It is lower - Mikhaylovka “ by the senior lieutenant Ivan Strelnikov it was shot at point blank range. The survived frontier guards headed by the lance sergeant Yury Babansky to whom passed command after death of the commander and the appeared in time reinforcement headed by the chief of the next outpost “ Kulebyakina of a hill “ constrained the senior lieutenant Vitaly Bubenin within several hours superior forces of the opponent, having forced that to leave the island, eventually. During battle for the island Damansky died on March 2 31 frontier guards (from them more than a half are remained in the battlefield after wounds and pinned up by bayonets), and one more - the corporal Pavel Akulov - is captured and subsequently is brutally tortured.
Soon to Damansky there came the helicopter with command of Imansky frontier group and its chief colonel Demokrat Leonov onboard and a reinforcement from the next outposts. To the island there were strengthened dresses of frontier guards, and in the back was developed 135 - I am a motor-shooting division of the Soviet Army with artillery and installations of system of the BM volley fire - 21 “ Hail “. From the Chinese side the infantry regiment numbering up to 5000 people prepared for military operations.
The following large battle for the island took place on March 15. A day before it two mutually exclusive orders of command were given - to clean frontier posts from the island (15:00) and to occupy it (20:00). In the morning on March 15 firing of the Soviet positions by forces of artillery and mortars began with the Chinese side, and three companies of the Chinese infantry took the offensive. Fight was started. The colonel D. Leonov with 4 tanks T - 62 (confidential at that time) attacked Chinese at the southernmost tip of the island, however its car was lined, and he is killed with a shot of the Chinese sniper in attempt to leave the burning tank. Subsequently the commander tank was captured by Chinese and now is an exhibit of the military museum in Beijing.
At 17:00 when it became clear that there are not enough forces engaged to action, in defiance of the order of the Politburo of the Central Committee of CPSU not to enter into the conflict the Soviet troops (which are available in a number of sources of the data that the decision was made directly by L. I. Brezhnev are presented to me extremely doubtful - I. D.) the commander of Far East military district was given the order to open fire with jet systems of volley " fire confidential at that time; Hail “ - both on the island Damansky, and across the adjacent Chinese territory on depth in several kilometers. Fiery squall destroyed the most part financially - technical and human resources of the Chinese group, including a reinforcement, mortars, stacks of shells. This attack had crucial importance in suppression of attack of the opponent.
All during collisions on the lake. Damansky in the period of time from March 2 to March 16, 1969 the Soviet troops lost the killed and the dead from wounds of 58 servicemen, including 4 officers, wounded 94, including 9 officers. These are OFFICIAL data which personally at me raise some doubts. Irrevocable losses of the Chinese side still are the classified information and, by different estimates, exceed losses from our party on 1 - 2 order. For the shown heroism five servicemen were entitled the Hero of the Soviet Union: colonel D. Leonov (posthumously), senior lieutenant I. Strelnikov (posthumously), senior lieutenant V. Bubenin, lance sergeant Yu. Babansky and lance sergeant Vladimir Orekhov (posthumously). The last Hero became known rather recently as he represented not frontier guards, but motor-shooters. Tens of the servicemen were awarded government awards.
Local skirmishes on sovetsko - the Chinese border near the lake. Damansky proceeded during the whole spring and summer of 1969 while the order on ceasefire from our party was given on September 10. Immediately islands Damansky and Kirkinsky were occupied with the Chinese armed forces. On September 11 in Beijing the Chairman of Council of ministers of the USSR A. N. Kosygin and the PRC State Council Premier Zhou Enlai agreed about the termination of hostile actions and the fact that troops remain on the taken positions. Actually it meant transfer of the lake. Damansky to China. On October 20, 1969 there took place new negotiations of heads of governments of the USSR and the People`s Republic of China during which it was succeeded to reach the agreement on need of revision of Sovetsko - the Chinese border. Further some more negotiations in Beijing and Moscow and in 1991 the island Damansky were carried out and a number of the neighboring islands finally departed to the People`s Republic of China. The frontier post, the first accepted battle, bears a name of Ivan Strelnikov now, and on the island for which so much RUSSIAN blood was shed, Museum of Military Glory of the CHINESE frontier guards is placed now.
Events on Damansky confirmed once again full inability of the Soviet management in due time to resolve controversial issues at a negotiating table that, however, does not belittle a feat of arms of the soldiers and their commanders who protected at the right time Homeland boundaries at all. Not their wine that soon after bloody fights disputed islands without excess noise were given to the opponent.