WHEN CONFESS KAINA? Before me PUT
. Number with fraction.
Fruit of masters of zaplechny work.
Victor SERBSKY, being
6 - summer Kolyma ZK
last year our family modestly celebrated mournful anniversary - 70 years from the date of death of my grandfather. More precisely - death as the person died at rather young age and under circumstances not clear until recently. During more than half a century my mother, her elder sister and the younger brother repeatedly sent inquiries to relevant authorities, but only recently, 70 years later (!) the known office is not enough - Pomala begins to open the “ granaries “. Alas, many relatives of those millions of killed in days of so-called “ Soviet “ the authorities did not wait for messages from a next world … These are features of national justice and as it is regrettable - national MEMORY which as it is represented to me, at the vast majority of my compatriots is in embryo if exists in general.
In this regard - small retreat. In the middle of 80 - x years of last century, already in the twilight of existence of the former state, the movie of Tengiz of Abuladze with the unambiguous name " was published; Repentance “. For many it was shock. In my opinion, neither to, nor after that domestic cinema did not see anything similar - only Georgians as which - which of their fellow countrymen played an ominous role not only country lives, but also all mankind in general could create such movie. The great director with the adherents acted with REPENTANCE on behalf of the distressful people and made it skillfully.
in the light of the latest events in Georgia, I am for some reason confident that the people of this small Caucasian country with honor will get out of the present difficult situation and will choose the correct way - regardless of what about it thinks granddaughters known Kremlin “ mokrushnik “ Vyacheslav Molotov or eternally unshaven “ borzoi puppy “ with 1 - go TsT channel. Bail to that is the relation of people to the history.
In that memorable movie is the scene shaking on the force. On sawmill in a certain Siberian village bring the wood - thousands huge “ Balanov “ at which end faces exiled of the woman and children try to find messages from the husbands and fathers dying on a tree felling. Units manage it. And the sawmill works regularly, and soon enough from huge stacks there are only heaps of sawdust and the shattered hopes …
Ya is not known, what is the time and nerves my relatives should have found the grandfather`s traces. In our family it was not accepted to concern this subject - perhaps from - for a lack of information. We with the brother knew only that we the grandfather took away in 38 - m in the city of Stalinsk (nowadays Novokuznetsk), and since then its tracks were lost in North - east direction. As we know much later, before arrest the grandfather worked at Kuznetsk plant, was the secretary of a party cell in several shops, and then - Stroyprokat`s party organizer. In 35 - the m was expelled from party as the relative “ fists “ and the last years worked as the executive of the city " base; Glavtabak “. Actually one fed a big family; from seven children by the end 30 - x survived three.
After arrest of the grandfather, my mother since 16 years (from January, 1943 to June, 1946). worked at Kuznetsk Metallurgical Combine, including in military shop where released artillery shells, the quality inspector. In July, 1946 my grandma with two younger children went to Komsomolsk-on-Amur (these Komsomol members was here at that time where as less, than prisoners and special settlers).
2 years Later, in September, 1948 my mother with the younger brother went to Magadan (in some degree, in hope to find out about something about destiny of the father). By the same steamship (“ Felix Dzerzhinsky “) my father also went to Kolyma. Having ended It is mountain - geological technical school (the father - 1 - y release in 1951, mother and the uncle - 2 - y in 1952) they worked many years in the Magadan geology subsequently. Somewhere at the beginning of 60 - x I for the first time saw the crumpled piece of paper - the reference from Military Board of the Supreme Court of USSR of June 6, 1958 about posthumous rehabilitation of the grandfather (we still will return to this entertaining document). However where and when he died, - we learned only several months ago.
U me in hands the case No. 802 on charge of my grandfather - Nayborodin Ivan Filippovich according to Art. 58 of item 8, 9, 11 UK RSFSR. It is begun on April 19, 1938, finished exactly a month later - on May 19, 1938 and contains 60 sheets. It is a lot of if to remember that the staff of the known office with “ clean hands “ and “ cold head “ rasshlyopat in due time not one thousand my compatriots, without troubling themselves any paper formalities. Reference (not the warrant, namely “ the reference on arrest “) it is dated on April 17, 1938. Big terror was already spent by then, and vigilant security officers, fully using work of voluntary informers, simply “ gathered additionally “ plan for enemies of the people. However, in our history cases when " took place; bodies “ having expedited the order on “ to preparation “ these most “ enemies of the people “ asked higher instances about increase in the plan as excess kubar (and then and asterisks) it was necessary to deserve.
As it occurred on Kolyma at the end of 30 - x, it is possible to read in the materials of the famous Magadan historian A. G. Kozlov stated in S. Halansky`s photo album “ Baptized Hell “ (Magadan, “ Wild North “ 2003): “ … the new management of Dalstroy headed by K. A. Pavlov addressed to People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR on the question concerning the LIMIT proceeding from the order No. 00447 again. According to the stated REQUEST, such limit was given to Dalstroy - 10000 people … In total 10000 cases were prepared on the Three of UNKVD across Dalstroy, from them more than 3000 are considered on 1 - y categories (execution) and over 4000 - on 2 - y categories (term till 10 years). Executions of prisoners took place in Magadan, on so-called Serpantinka, near Hatynnakh, on “ To Maldyaka “ and other mines of Dalstroy. And they were MASS, settled for intimidation directly IN THE FACE OF civilian employees of the mines. From December 16, 1937 to November 15, 1938. The three of UNKVD across Dalstroy considered 10743 cases. According to protocols of its meetings, it was shot 5801 persons “.
In turn, the mentioned order No. 00447 approved by People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs on July 31, 1937 ordered to carry out the operation “ on repression of the former fists, anti-Soviet elements and criminals “ depending on the concrete region “ from August 5 to August 15, 1937 and to finish in 4 - x monthly term “. At the same time it was supposed over all country “ to arrest 259450 people, and from them 72950 to shoot “. All only in the camps existing in the territory of activity of Dalstroy, according to the latest data, in 1932 - 1956 nearly 128 thousand people died, and about 10 thousand - underwent firing actions (apart from about 8 thousand which ran away, the majority of which were detained or killed subsequently).
Anyway, took the grandfather in 2 days what the relevant resolution of April 18, 1938 behind the signature " confirms; opera “ 4 - go offices of UGB across the Novosibirsk region, the second lieutenant Gosbezopasnosti of A. Kostromin. As usual, “ blue okolysh “ were dead of night. As rats or bugs. Younger children slept and did not manage to say goodbye to the father who any more was never seen. In the inventory of things, values and documents it appears: “ the passport of a series … No. …, the military ID, NOTHING is not present more “.
Judging from the fact that contains in an evidence, matter in the known office was put on a stream, and, in process of its advance, came to light all new and new “ proofs “ - one more beautiful another. So, in materials of the first interrogation of April 20 there is nothing supernatural - generally “ adjusting data “ an occupation, service in the ranks of RKKA in 1920 - 1924, the repressed relatives … In the protocol of interrogation of May 11 the line of the investigator (already mentioned A. Kostromin) is already felt: “ … we said that the policy of the party in the village leads to ruin of peasants, and in the city rates of the industry excessive are taken, and workers starve, go naked of - for a lack of products … it is impossible rigidly now approach communists, for the slightest shortcoming expel from All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) … We regarded the Stakhanov movement as simple fiction and a cheating of workers … collectivization is carried out prematurely, and elimination of a fist was elimination of the main country frame, being the chief supplier of bread that in essence … was blasting bases of the village and its ruin “. And what here not so, is asked?
Judging from the fact that signatures of the person under investigation from a leaf to a leaf underwent essential changes, without tortures (or as the softest, a trivial fight) here business did not manage. And could not manage: interrogations “ with addiction “ by then were already widely applied - about it it is written fairly. As a result - by the end of interrogation in the protocol it appeared: “ In the Fall of 1936 potatoes about 100 tons were not deliberately cleaned, there were also pomorozheno about 150 tons of cucumbers … was poisoned to 50 rabbits to whom we … gradually in a forage threw glass and added to arsenic … in the same way, in 1936 and the beginning of 1937 03 swines - a uterus were poisoned (by the time of adjudgement the number of the murdered pigs increased up to 13 heads. - I. D.) … “ And moreover - “ receipt of tobacco products for the 4th quarter 1937 and for all first quarter 1938 … " was broken; overstocking of the " base also took place; low-grade Tashkent cigarettes “. Whether there is not a bit too much for the person holding rather modest position and providing a big family? Whether it is worth speaking about such trifle as preparation “ act of terrorism in relation to Molotov and Kaganovich “!
Here - the minutes Stalin VKP (B) Group of November 5, 1935 on which my grandfather who had by then 10 - the summer experience in party, was excluded from its ranks from - for presence of relatives - fists (his father, brothers and cousins were arrested and sent in Narym by then). Now, which - that from what happened in Stalinsk at the end of 30 - x, it is possible to find on pages of the Internet, for example, V. Bedin, M. Kushnikova, V. Togulev “ Kemerovo and Stalinsk: panorama of provincial life in archival chronicles 1920 - 1930 - x (the documentary version) “. In a network there are also 2 Stalin lists across the Novosibirsk region from 10. 06. 38. signed by I. Stalin and V. Molotov; in the second of them there is also a surname of my grandfather in category 1 - execution (AP Russian Federation, op. 24, case 417, sheet 115). In total in these two lists across the Novosibirsk region in this category 137 and 84 surnames appear, respectively. It is remembered, after December events of 1825 only 5 people were sent to the gallows that, as we know, absolutely inopportunely “ woke “ Herzen.
In this regard, I think which - what pertinently to remind Vanyam, relationship not remembering, however rejoicing “ banners “ with a moustached mug on “ to red days of a calendar “. So-called “ STALIN " LISTS; - lists of the people condemned according to the personal sanction of future generalissimo and his closest accomplices on the Politburo, not so long ago, in 2002, were taken from Archive of the Russian President and published. The majority of lists belong by the time of so-called. Big Terror (1937 - 1938) also contain about 45000 names. At the same time the main “ readers “ lists there were an Owner and his closest henchman V. Molotov (whom still the grandfather Lenin tenderly called by the Stone Ass - whether for natural dullness, whether for irrepressible diligence) whose signatures stand, respectively, under 357 and 372 lists. Other members of the Politburo also did not differ special “ vegetarianism “: L. Kaganovich vised 188 lists; on one, relating to 1936, costs its laconic “ I WELCOME! Kaganovich “ K. Voroshilov (the gallant marshal who lost all battles in which participated) - 185, A. Zhdanov - 176, A. Mikoyan - 8, S. Kosior subsequently shot - 5. N. Ezhov, so far not “ was drawn “ managed to sign 8 lists (most likely, acting, in this case, not as the People`s commissar of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs, and as the secretary of the Central Committee).
was carried out Nearly three months by my grandfather in a chamber (I doubt that there it was spacious), mixed up with interrogations, confrontations, a beating and other moments accompanying the Soviet prison. It is a lot of or a little? As Alexander Isayevich, " used to say; It is possible to try Taste of the sea also from one hlebk “. The closed court session of visiting session of Military Board of the Supreme Court of USSR of July 4, 1938, judging by the protocol, began at 12 hours 40 minutes and was finished … at 12 hours 50 minutes. TEN MINUTES were enough for the solution of destiny of my grandfather and other members “ the right - the Trotskyist organization “. The firing sentence was carried out immediately. The CRIME SCENE (we will call things by their proper names!) - city of Novosibirsk. Absolutely near Stalin (Novokuznetsk). More than half a century my family looked for the grandfather`s traces absolutely in other part of our immense homeland where as it is sung in one mocking song, “ it is so free the person " breathes; …
my parents (the father - also from banished “ fists “) never regretted that in 1948 arrived to youth on the North where in 1951 - 1952 ended Magadan It is mountain - geological technical school and worked about 40 years in SVGU - TsKTE. My uncle in due time heading one of laboratories SVKNII I think, would tell the same. They lived difficult, but happy life, and to them is what to remember. It is sure, as they left memory of themselves kind. And still …
When Nikita Chudotvorets for the first time read to very few people the clear term “ cult of personality “ (though itself was completely in blood), hundreds of thousands of my fellow citizens returned from the places not so remote. With identical small suitcases, with identical accompanying pieces of paper. It was lucky, however, not everyone. Today hardly the tenth part of the dead in days of so-called “ Soviet “ the authorities it is rehabilitated. Again I re-read already mentioned reference of June 6, 1958 on rehabilitation (posthumous) of my grandfather: “ Sentence of Military board of July 4, 1938 concerning Nayborodin I. F. on Newly discovered facts (the mistake left. - I. D.) it is cancelled, and business in lack of evidence is stopped. Nayborodin I. F. it is rehabilitated posthumously “. It is signed “ the chairman of judicial structure of Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the general - the major of justice “ … A. KOSTROMIN. whether
that it is A. Kostromin who, being the second lieutenant of state security, was an investigator in the matter of my grandfather? If so, then I doubt that during war it reached a front line - “ bodies “ as we know, never as shortcoming in " ate with gift of bread; enemies “ and “ wreckers “ this country did not test never before. How many the affairs pulling on “ tower “ cooked up this “ servant of the people “ in how many corpses each next promotion - about that there is no mention cost him. (As the member of the family of the victim of political repression) my mother received the relevant documents on receiving poor privileges … only in March, 2007. Whole 192 rubles! The brotherly modes in different parts of the world were financed all these years by our wise government where as it is more regular and is generous. I do not exclude that the question of granting privileges to relatives of the victims of GULAG will be brought up at the highest level only when them there will be units. The economy, as we know, is obliged to be economical.
A we still is surprised - why we, “ the people - the winner “ we live SO, and here Germans (Italians, Japanese - not an essence) - SO? I think that not the last role in it was played that the corresponding assessment of activity so-called " still was not given; Soviet “ authorities (“ process of the Communist Party “ taking place at the beginning of 90 - x and quickly enough turned into the farce, - it is not counted). In post-war Germany (Western, certainly) only to the middle 60 - x years more than 80 thousand processes of members of nazi party were carried out. Whether much at us was similar processes? UNITS. And on those - someone was judged as the English spy (Beria), someone as Zionist (Abakumov), but NOBODY as member of CRIMINAL party or CRIMINAL government institution.
However, at Kaganovich “ selected “ Moscow Metro, Molotov has a city of (Perm), Voroshilov has 2 cities (Luhansk and Ussuriysk), and at the Father of the people - even 6 (from Novomoskovsk and Tskhinvali to Donetsk and Dushanbe inclusive), but whether it is possible to tell that “ justice triumphed “? I do not think. If who and “ suffered “ from executioners, so unless participants “ Katyn elimination “ which representatives of charge from the Soviet Union tried in 46 - to hang up m on Germans during the Nuremberg process. And that, I think, not because were executioners but because were taken red-handed. For example, one of the largest marauders of World War II, the Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Serov (in the years of war of the deputy of the people`s commissar of internal affairs of the USSR, in 1954 - 1958 the chairman of KGB at Council of ministers of the USSR, is deprived of the Hero`s rank in 1953, died in 1990) or, say, Lavrenti Tsanava (gentleman of the Order of Suvorov 1 class and two Orders of Kutuzov 1 class, “ hero “ Kuropat, the chief specialist on “ to unloading “ prisons in the western Belarus, it is arrested in 1953, died in prison two years later).
In the fundamental report “ KATYN. Captives of unsolemn war “ (“ Russia the XX century, documents “. Under the editorship of the academician A. N. Yakovlev. The m, 1999) is given the list of names of workers of the central and local offices of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs appearing in the documents and materials concerning Katyn business, including and those who were directly involved in “ to unloading “ camps - only more than 250 people. Judging by dates of death, many of these executioners lived to a ripe old age. It only when where - nibud in Baltic judge a retired Russian gebist, ours “ patriots “ begin to squall about human rights and to hold up to shame “ fascists “. With honors the buried executioners still are based in strange for the normal person “ necropolis “ in the center of the capital. I do not speak about numerous statues of the most important " any more; mokrushnik “ (for the first time the mass terror which sounded need and constructions of concentration camps in the country), scattered on all cities and rural lands - in only one small Tala on Kolyma there was even 4 " about 10 years ago; grandfather Lenin “ in a radius less than a half a kilometer!
was published in Magadan the book " Not so long ago; For us the ships " will come; (The Magadan book publishing house, 1999) in which the list of names of REHABILITEES concerning whom DEATH SENTENCES were carried out in the territory of the Magadan region is for the first time provided. At the time of a publication of the book about 8 thousand surnames - approximately on ONE flight of the steamship " were known; Kulu “ delivering in due time “ contingent “ to Kolyma. These are a little more than 5% of total number of the dead in our corner of the world. In the preface to this mournful passional written by the remarkable Magadan writer, the historian and just the person of exclusive decency and conscientiousness - Alexander Mikhaylovich Biryukov, it is told: “ Today this memory belongs to us - the most bitter, but invaluable inheritance. Let`s refuse it, we will wave a hand - not before supposedly there are debts more important! - and the past will hide in failures of our memory that sometime - do not give, God! - to seize a throat to our children and grandsons “.
However remain to this day not considered tons of the affairs which are becoming dusty in regional and regional archives. Still any of heads of the state did not pronounce articulate words of REPENTANCE (for genocide of own people, for unleashing of World War II, for formation of fascism as the phenomena - this mournful list can be continued long). Meanwhile there is an indisputable truth: ignorance of own history leads, finally, to its repetition. And not always in the form of the farce. Whether to us not to know it?!
PS: Our people are divided by
into sentries and prisoners
Gianni RODARI, the communist, the storyteller