What did Mikael Agricola give to Finns? To day of Finnish it is devoted...
are Not so far from Vyborg, on the cape of Kyureniyemi which clasp in the cold and damp arms still hidden under already fragile ice poorly - salty waves of the Gulf of Finland, there is a simple black stone with a figured fencing. At the very beginning of the last century, in 1900, this memorable sign youth society of the settlement of Koyvisto (nowadays Primorsk) noted the place of death of Mikael Agricola.
Exactly here, in the village of Kyuryoniyemi of arrival of Uusikirko, on April 9, 1557 he suddenly died on the road from Moscow from where after negotiations on articles of the peace between Sweden and Russia the Swedish delegation came back.
In Soviet period the monument was destroyed, but the stone escaped and long, long lay in store rooms of the Vyborg museum. Lay and was waiting in the wings. Well, really forgot about it? Unless it is possible? Of course, it is impossible. And when other times came, remembered it! Restored, arranged well the territory, made a fencing and established. On the same place which was noted by Koyvisto`s youth.
And now, let it is not so populous at this sign, but … The Finnish planes on a civil air passage - " fly; Hi to Mikael! “. There are on the gulf Finnish vessels: “ Hi to Mikael! “. Amicably the Finnish tourists walk to St. Petersburg cheerful columns: “ Salute to Mikael! “.
Well, a few stone was not lucky. It would lie literally on what one hundred kilometers to the west, on that side of border, would be at it much more visitors. Especially today - on April 9. Annually this day Society of the Finnish literature hands awards for the better translations of works of world culture into Finnish. And all Finland celebrates the Day of Finnish . Or Day of Mikael Agricola . What, in principle, is absolutely equivalent. Because this person gave to Finns a modern written language.
And the first work of the Finnish literature there was an Abc-book (Abckiria) of Agricola from which any full book did not remain today. Those fragments that reached us, are parts of three different editions. The first, most likely, left in 1543 in Stockholm, in Amund Laurentson`s printing house, the second - eight years later, and the third, after death of his author, - in 1559. And the last fragment containing final pages of the abc-book was found out not so long ago - in 1966
What this book was? Except the alphabet and numbers, the abc-book included the main fragments of the Catechism: Ten precepts, Creed, prayers “ Pater Noster “ “ Ave Maria “ and also word about a baptism, confession and communion. I.e. the book as if accumulated in itself considerable part of christian teaching which medieval priests already preached to Finns in their native language.
And here, in structure of the abc-book, - a solution. Answer to a question: “ And why this work of Agricola was demanded modern to it society and already then was apprehended by descendants? “
Mikael was lucky. Stars met in such a way that he was born in the right place and in due time. Though, generally if so, strictly, then exact date of birth of Agricola is unknown. For this reason Day of Finnish is dated not for Day of its birth, and by Day of death, the place and which date we know authentically. If to be guided by some data relating to later stages of his life, then Mikael approximately in 1510 " was born; in the village Torsbyu, arrival of Pernaya in the lower Uusima “.
The name of mother of Mikael is unknown, we well know how called the father - Ulof. Or, on Finnish of manners, Olavi. Such surname - Olavinpoyka, or “ son Olavi “ if in Russian, was at Mikael. “ Agricola “ meaning in Latin “ farmer “ as memory of the father, for the first time appeared in written sources in 1531, and the boy at the Vyborg Latin school where he was sent received it to study approximately in 1520
I it too - good luck as education at that time was destiny of the chosen units. But, probably, Mikael had rare talent and exclusive endowments. Which were noticed by the prior of arrival of Pernaya and persuaded parents to send the boy to Vyborg.
And in 1523 to the Swedish throne there ascended Gustav I of VAZ. The situation in the country was rather intense, and its stabilization insistently required the immediate solution of a question of strengthening of the royalty. Than, actually, Gustav was also engaged. For this purpose it supported the Reformation which already captured the North of Europe.
Catholicism in Sweden was replaced with Lutheranism. The king stopped any intercourses with Vatican, seized the property of Catholic church and by that undermined the power of Catholic bishops. But …
needed to find allies among Protestant hierarches. And they supported that church service in churches was carried out not on Latin. In the native language. That parishioners not mechanically learned unclear to them words and phrases, and understood an essence of the God`s Word. Therefore in 1526 the Christian Greek Writing, or the New Testament, were translated and published in Swedish.
At that time Finland was the Swedish province, and the translation of the Bible on Finnish became only a matter of time. Sooner or later the translator had to appear. And Mikael became him. And here in order that everything agreed in one point and on the specific personality, except a favor of stars it was required still which - that. In the form of such human qualities as education, commitment, persistence and diligence.
Mikael got an education. At first in Vyborg, and then and in Wittenberg (Germany). In that city on Elba where in 20 years before Agricola stepped into its pavements, one of ideologists of the Reformation, Martin Luther, beat the well-known 95 reformatory theses to doors of church.
Exactly there, in Wittenberg, Mikael, most likely, also began grandiose work on the translation of the Bible into Finnish. Yes, work, really, was hard. Even Luther somehow dropped: “ As heavy and tiresomely to try to force ancient Jews to exorcise it in German! “
But Agricola was the peasant`s son. Farmer. Persistence and diligence at it was more than … And they were necessary to it. The task it faced more difficult, than Luther who had a tool for the translation. Mikael had no such tool. Finnish had no writing yet. The diploma was known only by the aristocracy and clergy. And if the first communicated on Swedish, German or French, then the second preferred Latin.
And the Finnish literature was not. So that`s that. Not - lo. It should be created. And Agricola made it. He introduced rules of writing, invented words … Such as esikuva - a sample. Or - the manuscript (kesikiryoitus). Made derivative forms … Borrowed something from other languages. For example, from the Swedish enkeli - an angel, historia - history. He was at loss for words from different Finnish dialects, wrote down their pronunciation. I … He made it!
For the life Agricola translated much into Finnish. New testament, Prayer book, Psalter, part of the Old Precept … Nearly 2400 printed pages. But … At first he created the tool for this translation. Written Finnish .
Therefore Agricola by right costs among great national figures of Finland of whom the country is proud. And annually celebrates Day of Finnish - Day of Mikael Agricola.
Yes. They celebrate. Not we. But if to look a little further … There is no Agricola what? Nobody and ever so would learn about “ To Kalevala “? That of the Karelian - the Finnish epos which was written by Elias Lennrot in order that it entered universal, so and our, cultural treasury. I … If not it, then so all of us also sat in darkness, without fire and hot coffee? Or tea … Just because Maya Lassila could not send all of us behind matches in any way …
the Author expresses sincere gratitude to N. V. Ryazanova (Vantaa, Finland) for the help in search of illustrative material to article.