How many “ Periodic Tables “ exists in the nature?
on March 1, 1869, 140 years ago, Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev made the table called by it “ Experience of the system of elements founded on their nuclear weight and chemical similarity “ which was a prototype or the great-grandmother of scientific Periodic system of elements.
Today it is possible to argue to blue in the face: there was this great opening directly in a dream, during deep meditation either at breakfast, or still somehow. They say that Dmitry Ivanovich very much did not love when asked him this question: “ How you invented Periodic system? “ Usually he kept silent, and only once did not sustain and declared: “ I over it, maybe, reflected 20 years, and you think: sat and suddenly … it is ready! “
of the Colleague Mendeleyev understood not at once
Very few people know that this opening did not cause keen interest in contemporaries. Several days later, on March 6, 1869, at a meeting of the Russian chemical society (created in three months prior to the described events), Mendeleyev wanted to make the detailed report on what it, actually opened. But on the trouble caught a cold, got sick and did not manage to recover to a meeting. So he charged to make the message to Nikolay Aleksandrovich Menshutkin, one of founders of RHO fulfilling at that time duties of the clerk of society.
Nikolay Aleksandrovich was the quite famous scientist. Running forward, I can tell that already two years later, in 1871 - m, he wrote the textbook “ Analytical chemistry “ which sustained 16 editions (the last exactly in 60 years after the first). At a meeting Menshutkin tried to carry out “ presentation “ top-level ideas of Mendeleyev, but his speech did not cause any interest in fellows - chemists. And only several days when Mendeleyev recovered later and met colleagues, professor Savchenkov noticed: “ Your table, old man, very much looks like Odlinga`s table. Think up something special … “
And who such Odling? “ There now, we will also begin with it … “
By and large, all began even not with William Odlinga. The first successful attempt of systematization of chemical elements long before Oldinga was made by the German chemist Jeremiah - Veniamin Richter. In 1793 he suggested to arrange all chemical elements known at that time in a row on increase of their atomic mass. Passed nearly a quarter of the century more until other German chemist Johann Wolfgang Dyobereyner, the good friend of the philosopher Johann Goethe found out that the mass of an average from three elements, similar on weight, are equal approximately to an arithmetic average of atomic masses of two next elements. In total such triads it appeared three: lithium - sodium - potassium; sulfur - selenium - tellurium; chlorine - bromine - iodine.
Following “ opener “ new system there was the Russian chemist Herman Ivanovich Hess (most likely the Russified German). In published in 1849 (in 20 years prior to Mendeleyev`s opening) the textbook “ Bases of pure chemistry “ it defined four groups of nonmetal elements, and he added two more to already known two teams of Dyobereyner: carbon - pine forest - silicon; nitrogen - phosphorus - arsenic. At the same time Hess did not consider the periodic system ideal at all and assumed that it needs to be improved and improved.
New attempt to arrange chemical elements in a certain sequence stated Run on a spiral to
in 1862 the French scientist A. E. Begye de Shancurtua. It connected properties of elements with function of numbers and arranged all around the cylinder on a spiral. Respectively and its table received the name “ Terrestrial spiral “. But it was known in rather narrow circle, the same Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev about “ spirals “ Begye de Shancurtua heard nothing.
In two years after the Frenchman, in 1864, the English chemist John Alexander Reina Nyulends offered the qualification, his table received the name “ systems of octaves “. He claimed that nuclear the weight of elements, behind some exceptions, with a bigger or smaller accuracy are multiple to eight. Discussion of the report of Nyyulends in the London chemical society in 1865 was not of a particular interest to colleagues, and professor from Glasgow J. Foster did not keep from the malicious remark, having asked Nyyulends: “ Whether you tried, the sir to have elements as initial letters of their names and whether found at the same time any regularities? “
Approximately in at one time with Nyyulends, in 1864, the German chemist Julius - Lothar Meyer in the book “ Modern theories of chemistry and their value for a chemical statics “ provided the table in which elements were located as increase in their atomic masses. In the table it placed 42 elements from 63 known by then.
And, at last, we reached William Odlinga who during the period from 1857 to 1868 offered several versions of the Periodic Table at once. Also received that Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev called his works “ rudiments of the periodic " system;.
Meanwhile, the system offered by the great Russian chemist found the final version only in 1870. But it does not mean at all that on it a creative delicacy was finished. There were attempts to invent the system and after Mendeleyev. But its table was the most convenient, clear and capacious.
When began to poison people with arsenic?in conclusion have some
I about chemical elements. It is interesting to track history of their opening. The most ancient with which the mankind got acquainted still B.C. are 11 elements: gold, silver, lead, copper, tin, iron, carbon, antimony, mercury, zinc and sulfur.
Began to poison with arsenic people only in the Middle Ages because discovered it approximately in 1250. For two centuries later - bismuth and 1669 - phosphorus.
Exactly 20 chemical elements were presented to mankind by the 18th century. Everything began with discovery of cobalt in 1735 and ended in 1797 with discovery of chrome. Between them as opening settled down: platinum, nickel, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, manganese, fluorine, chlorine, barium, molybdenum, tungsten, tellurium, uranium, zirconium, strontium, yttrium, titan, beryllium.
All the rest appeared in periodic system in the 19th and 20th centuries. For example, aluminum helium in 1895 - m was discovered in 1825, and.
I cannot provide the name of the last four chemical elements discovered already in our XXI century. That pleasantly all of them are opened by the Russian scientists of the Joint institute of nuclear researches in Dubna. Here only the name at them - you will not wish to the enemy - ununhexium, ununoctium, ununtrium, ununpentium. The most emotional readers “ Schools of life “ I urge not to try to be original and not to call sons by these names. Yet not time …
I, at last, the interesting fact on “ snack “. How you think, than responded over the ocean to the invention of periodic system? In the same day, on March 1, 1869, in the USA for the first time let out stamps with pictures. Such here day happened 140 years ago...