Where there lived solar gods?
the Sun - hot, bright, far, inaccessible, but such to all of us a necessary star. People sang at all times of the sun because understood - without it there will be no life on the earth. In religions of many countries of the world the sun was identified good luck, it was the most widespread cult. Solar gods entered in the highest a divine pantheon. People allocated them with the huge force and the power, they were rulers of the destiny on the earth.
The sun beats from eternally clear sky to eye pain, floods with the bright light the desert valley, lighting rocks and majestic pyramids - it is Ancient Egypt. Exactly there the cult of the Sun gained the highest development. During the different periods of history of the country solar gods in Ancient Egypt bore different names, had different forms and images.
Only for an indifferent look the sun is represented always identical, actually it every time a miscellaneous. In the morning - one, in the evening - another, its appearance depends on a season and weather conditions, all this was noticed by observant Egyptians. At them even gods had different names. The morning sun was called - Hepri, a sun - Ra, evening - Atum, and a solar disk - Aton. In general in the Egyptian religion there was a large number of solar gods, and powerful were most popular - Gore, Ra, Amon, Aton. Their images and force of influence on people changed depending on these or those events in country life, whether it be war or a drought, the statement or change of the power.
God Gore was one of powerful gods of Ancient Egypt, was represented in the form of the man with brains of a falcon or a solar disk with open falcon wings. Temples in honor of it were built almost throughout all history of Egypt. Gore acted in two forms: as the lord of heaven - god of the Sun and as the patron of the terrestrial tsar - the Pharaoh. Gore - the main character in mythical events which are connected with death and revival of god - the father Osiris. It overcame the murderer Osiris Seth and returned it to life in an underground kingdom, and itself became the successor of the power of Osiris on the earth. The myth reflected a legal transfer of the power of the Pharaoh after his death to the successor.
At the time of the Ancient kingdom the cult of one more god - was widespread R`s . The Pharaoh was considered as the terrestrial embodiment of this god. One of versions of the birth of god R - emergence it from a flower of a lotus which magic aroma inhaled in it life. R every day in the gold castle transported the sun on the sky, and went down in an underground kingdom for fight against a huge dragon at night. And so was day by day - a symbol of the perpetual solar motion on the sky. R was represented on a miscellaneous: in the form of a falcon, the man with brains of a falcon or even in an image of a cat. The bug a scarab was considered as his symbol. Just as the scarab skatyvat pads an earth ball, so god of the sun of R rolled every day a solar sphere on the sky.
R`s movement on the heavenly arch defined the special mechanism of measurement of time widespread in Ancient Egypt. Each hour had the name determined by a phase of fight of god against a huge dragon by Apop in an underground kingdom. So, the sixth one o`clock in the afternoon at Egyptians was called “ hour of rise “ the twelfth one o`clock in the afternoon - “ R merges with life “ and the first one o`clock in the morning was called “ hour of defeat of enemies of R “. And all these hours in temples priests carried out services. Further this idea of Egyptians formed a basis for division solar for about 24 days hour day.
At the time of an average kingdom the cult of Amon was popular . God of the sun Amon was considered as the father of all other gods, was represented in the form of the person in a crown with two white feathers or in the form of a ram. A bit later Amon and R`s both cults connected in the one God Amon - R. Priests of this cult began to control the richest temples in all Egypt. To these temples the huge share of a foreign tribute and military trophies was flown down.
Aton - one more solar god of Ancient Egypt. Its cult was popular at the time of government of Amenhotep IV who replaced the name with Ekhnaton that meant “ pleasing to Aton “. The Pharaoh proclaimed Aton the one God of all live on the earth and forbade to worship other gods. During this period in the history of Ancient Egypt the religion carries a monotheist current (monotheism). The Pharaoh identified himself good luck - they were a single whole. Both of them were the grand conquerors and reasonable governors caring for the people subject to them. This political step was taken and in order that in hands of the Pharaoh all power over the country was concentrated.
Aton represented in the form of a solar disk which beams come to an end with the human hands holding a symbolical sign of the word “ life “ - a cross with a loop above. But after death of the Pharaoh names of Ekhnaton and god of Aton were erased from all inscriptions on walls of temples and pyramids. His opponents tried to suppress the fact of existence of the Pharaoh - the heretic. God Amon - R was returned on the lawful place - the main place of the tsar of gods.
Egyptians devoutly believed in solar Gods because the sun is a creator of life on the earth. Priests in temples carefully monitored the movement of the sun on the sky, they informed the people on the beginning of sowing works and time of harvesting, knew about solar eclipses. Watching the movement of the sun on the sky, Egyptians invented a solar calendar and the first sundial.
But gods are not eternal, today they are dead, and their temples and sanctuaries are available to views of everyone. Ancient gods died, but the sun lives. For ancient people the sun was powerful god, for us - a source of life and energy. But as well as in ancient times, we know that not the sun is subject to us, and we - to the sun. Still life of people depends on it, as well as many hundreds years ago.